Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii
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The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii began with the ''coup d'état'' of January 17, 1893 on the island of Oahu, leading to the end of the indigenous, hereditary monarchs. It was largely at the hands of United States citizens, who were backed by an invasion of U.S. Marines under John L. Stevens. Hawaii was initially reconstituted as an independent republic, but the ultimate goal of the revolutionaries was the annexation of the islands to the United States, which was finally accomplished in 1898.
The Kamehameha Dynasty was the reigning monarchy of the Kingdom of Hawaii, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I in 1795, until the death of Kamehameha V in 1872 and Lunalilo in 1874. On July 6, 1846, U.S. Secretary of State John C. Calhoun, on behalf of President Tyler, afforded formal recognition of Hawaiian independence under the reign of Kamehameha III. As a result of the recognition of Hawaiian independence, the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with the major nations of the world and established over ninety legations and consulates in multiple seaports and cities. The kingdom would continue for another 21 years until its overthrow in 1893 with the fall of the House of Kalakaua.
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