The Orange Revolution ((ウクライナ語:Помаранчева революція, ''Pomarancheva revolyutsiya'')) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud. Kiev, the Ukrainian capital, was the focal point of the movement's campaign of civil resistance, with thousands of protesters demonstrating daily.〔Andrew Wilson, “Ukraine's 'Orange Revolution' of 2004: The Paradoxes of Negotiation”, in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), ''Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present'', Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 295–316.()〕 Nationwide, the democratic revolution was highlighted by a series of acts of civil disobedience, sit-ins, and general strikes organized by the opposition movement.
The protests were prompted by reports from several domestic and foreign election monitors as well as the widespread public perception that the results of the run-off vote of 21 November 2004 between leading candidates Viktor Yushchenko and Viktor Yanukovych were rigged by the authorities in favour of the latter.〔Paul Quinn-Judge, Yuri Zarakhovich, (The Orange Revolution ), ''Time'', 28 November 2004〕 The nationwide protests succeeded when the results of the original run-off were annulled, and a revote was ordered by Ukraine's Supreme Court for 26 December 2004. Under intense scrutiny by domestic and international observers, the second run-off was declared to be "fair and free". The final results showed a clear victory for Yushchenko, who received about 52% of the vote, compared to Yanukovych's 44%. Yushchenko was declared the official winner and with his inauguration on 23 January 2005 in Kiev, the Orange Revolution ended.
In the following years, the Orange Revolution had a negative connotation among pro-government circles in Belarus and Russia.〔〔〔(Ukraine is Not Russia:Comparing Youth Political Activism ) by Taras Kuzio, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006
(«В оранжевых и радужных трусах» ''In orange and red shorts'' ), Vzglyad (25 January 2013)〕〔
In the 2010 presidential election, Yanukovych became Yushchenko's successor as Ukrainian President after the Central Election Commission and international observers declared that the presidential election was conducted fairly.〔
〕 Yanukovych was ousted from power four years later following the February 2014 Euromaidan clashes in Kiev's Independence Square. Unlike the bloodless Orange Revolution, these protests resulted in more than 100 deaths, occurring mostly between 18 and 20 February.
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