| caption = Belišće and Osijek on the map of Croatia; JNA/RSK-held territories in April 1992 are highlighted in red.
| place = Western part of Baranja, north of Belišće, Croatia
| date = 3 April 1992
| result = Operation aborted, no changes on the battlefield
| combatant1 =
| combatant2 = Republic of Serbian Krajina
Yugoslav People's Army
| strength1 = 1,800
| strength2 = unknown
| commander1 = Karl Gorinšek
| commander2 = unknown
| casualties1 = 15–16 killed
| casualties2 = 30 killed
| casualties3 =
Operation Baranja ((クロアチア語:Operacija Baranja)) was an aborted offensive of the Croatian Army (''Hrvatska vojska'' – HV) north of the towns of Belišće and Valpovo, Croatia on 3 April 1992 during the Croatian War of Independence. The offensive quickly gained ground after the HV advanced north of the Drava River into Baranja. The defending force of the Croatian Serb Territorial Defence Force supported by the Yugoslav People's Army (''Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija'' – JNA) artillery were caught unprepared and offered light resistance.
However, the offensive was not authorised and it was cancelled six hours after it had been launched. An investigation was launched by the HV, and two senior officers were relieved of their duty, before being reassigned to new positions. According to General Martin Špegelj, the decision to abort the offensive was wrong as it meant a missed opportunity to recapture Baranja which had been lost to the JNA in 1991. Admiral Davor Domazet-Lošo pointed out that the offensive presented a significant political problem to Croatian leadership as it meant that the political leaders of Croatia had poor control over its military, or that Croatia was violating its international obligations towards the United Nations (UN) in respect of the Vance plan at the time the country sought to become a member of the UN.
During the fighting, and in its aftermath, the JNA shelled several Croatian settlements and three Croatian civilians living in Croatian Serb-controlled Baranja were killed in retribution. The battle is commemorated annually in the towns of Belišće and Valpovo.
In 1990, following the electoral defeat of the government of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, ethnic tensions worsened. The Yugoslav People's Army (''Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija'' – JNA) confiscated Croatia's Territorial Defence Force's (''Teritorijalna obrana'' – TO) weapons to minimize resistance. On 17 August, the tensions escalated into an open revolt by Croatian Serbs, centred on the predominantly Serb-populated areas of the Dalmatian hinterland around Knin, parts of the Lika, Kordun, Banovina regions and eastern Croatia.
Following the Pakrac clash between Serb insurgents and Croatian special police in March 1991, the conflict had escalated into the Croatian War of Independence. The JNA stepped in, increasingly supporting the Croatian Serb insurgents. In early April, the leaders of the Croatian Serb revolt declared their intention to integrate the area under their control, known as SAO Krajina, with Serbia. In May, the Croatian government responded by forming the Croatian National Guard (''Zbor narodne garde'' – ZNG), but its development was hampered by a United Nations (UN) arms embargo introduced in September. On 8 October, Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, and a month later the ZNG was renamed the Croatian Army (''Hrvatska vojska'' – HV). Late 1991 saw the fiercest fighting of the war, as the 1991 Yugoslav campaign in Croatia culminated in the Siege of Dubrovnik, and the Battle of Vukovar.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』