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Oghuz Turks : ウィキペディア英語版
Oghuz Turks

The Ghuzz or Turkmen also known as Oguzes (a linguistic term designating the Western Turkic or Oghuz languages from the Oghur sub-division of Turkic language family) were a historical Turkic tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in Central Asia during the early medieval period. The name ''Oguz'' is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". The Oguz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs. The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oguz Yabgu State. Today the residents of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Gagauzia and Iranian Azerbaijan are descendants of Oghuz Turks and their language belongs to the Oghuz (a.k.a. southwestern Turkic) group of the Turkic languages family. According to Khazar sources,〔''The Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge''. (1835) B. B. Edwards and J. Newton Brown. Brattleboro, Vermont, Fessenden & Co., p. 1125.〕〔Bloomberg, Jon: ''The Jewish World in the Middle Ages''. Ktav Publishing, 2000, p. 108.〕〔Pritsak O. & Golb. N: ''Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century'', Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982.〕 Oghuzes are the seventh son of Togarmah related to Gog and Magog.
In the 9th century, the Oguzes from the Aral steppes drove Bechens from the Emba and Ural River region toward the west. In the 10th century, they inhabited the steppe of the rivers Sari-su, Turgai, and Emba to the north of Lake Balkhash of modern-day Kazakhstan.〔Grousset, R. ''The Empire of the Steppes''. Rutgers University Press, 1991, p. 148.〕 A clan of this nation, the Seljuks, embraced Islam and in the 11th century entered Persia, where they founded the Great Seljuk Empire.
Similarly in the 11th century, a Tengriist Oghuz clan—referred to as Uzes or Torks in the Russian chronicles—overthrew Pecheneg supremacy in the Russian steppe. Harried by another Turkic horde, the Kipchaks, these Oghuz penetrated as far as the lower Danube, crossed it and invaded the Balkans, where they were either crushed〔Grousset, R. ''The Empire of the Steppes''. Rutgers University Press, 1991, p. 186.〕 or struck down by an outbreak of plague, causing the survivors either to flee or to join the Byzantine imperial forces as mercenaries (1065).〔Hupchick, D. ''The Balkans''. Palgrave, 2002, p. 62.〕
The Oghuz seem to have been related to the Pechenegs, some of whom were clean-shaven and others of whom had small 'goatee' beards. According to the book ''Attila and the Nomad Hordes'', "Like the Kimaks they set up many carved wooden funerary statues surrounded by simple stone ''balbal'' monoliths." The authors of the book go on to note that "Those Uzes or Torks who settled along the Russian frontier were gradually Slavicized, though they also played a leading role as cavalry in 1100- and early 1200-era Russian armies, where they were known as ''Black Hats''.... Oghuz warriors served in almost all Islamic armies of the Middle East from the 1000s onwards, in Byzantium from the 800's, and even in Spain and Morocco."〔 In later centuries, they adapted and applied their own traditions and institutions to the ends of the Islamic world and emerged as empire-builders with a constructive sense of statecraft.
Linguistically, the Oghuz are listed together with the old Kimaks of the middle Yenisei of the Ob, the old Kipchaks who later emigrated to southern Russia, and the modern Kirghiz in one particular Turkic group, distinguished from the rest by the mutation of the initial ''y'' sound to ''j'' (''dj'').
"The term 'Oghuz' was gradually supplanted among the Turks themselves by ''Türkmen'', 'Turcoman', from the mid 900's on, a process which was completed by the beginning of the 1200s."〔Lewis, G. ''The Book of Dede Korkut''. Penguin Books, 1974, p. 10.〕
"The Ottoman dynasty, who gradually took over Anatolia after the fall of the Seljuks, toward the end of the 13th century, led an army that was also predominantly Oghuz."〔Lewis, p. 9.〕
(詳細はXiongnu shan-yü Mao-tun subdued a people called Hu-chieh, west of Wu-sun located in the Tarim Basin, the Ili Valley and the Pamir Mountains. It is suggested that the early pronunciation of this transliteration might be related to the ancestors of Oghur/Oghuz.〔Torday, L., ''Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History''. The Durham Academic Press, 1997, pp. 220-221.〕 However, it is known that Oghuz people historically appeared with this name in a region extending from the east of Caspian Sea to the east of Lake Aral, neighbouring to Karakum Desert in the south.〔Faruk Sümer, Oğuzlar, TDV Islam Ansiklopedisi, Year: 2007, Vol: 33, Page: 325-330, Language: Turkish, (Online Version )〕
The original homeland of the Oghuz, like other Turks, was the Ural-Altay region of Central Asia, which has been the domain of Turkic peoples since antiquity. Although their mass-migrations from Central Asia occurred from the 800's onwards, they were present in areas west of the Caspian Sea centuries prior, although smaller in numbers and perhaps living with other Turks. For example, the ''Book of Dede Korkut'', the historical epic of the Oghuz Turks, was written from the 800's and 900's.〔Alstadt, Audrey. ''The Azerbaijani Turks'', p.11. Hoover Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8179-9182-4〕
According to many historians, the usage of the word "Oghuz" is dated back to the advent of the Huns (220 BC). The title of "Oghuz" (Oguz Kaan) was given to Mau-Tun,〔Bichurin N.Ya., ''"Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times"'', vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, pp. 56-57〕〔Taskin V.S., ''"Materials on history of Sünnu"'', transl., 1968, Vol. 1, p. 129〕 the founder of the Xiongnu Empire, which is often considered the first Turkic political entity in Central Asia.
Also in the 2nd century BC, a Turkic tribe called ''O-kut'' or ''Wuqi'' 呼揭, 呼得, 乌揭, 乌护 who were described as a western enemy of the Huns (referred to in Chinese sources, Shiji, 110 and Suishu, 84) were mentioned in the area of the Irtysh River, in present-day Lake Zaysan. The Greek sources used the name ''Oufi'' (or ''Ouvvi'') to describe the Oghuz Turks, a name they had also used to describe the Huns centuries earlier.
A number of tribal groupings bearing the name Oghuz, often with a numeral representing the number of united tribes in the union, are noted.
The mention of the "six Oghuz tribal union" in the Turkic Orhun inscriptions (500's) pertains to the unification of the six Turkic tribes which became known as the Oghuz. This was the first written reference to Oghuz, and was dated to the period of the Göktürk empire. The Oghuz community gradually grew larger, uniting more Turkic tribes prior and during the Göktürk establishment.〔(''Oguz'' entry ), Encyclopædia Britannica Online.〕
Prior to the Göktürk state, there are references to the ''Sekiz-Oghuz'' ("eight-Oghuz") and the ''Dokuz-Oghuz'' ("nine-Oghuz") union. The Oghuz Turks under Sekiz-Oghuz and the Dokuz-Oghuz state formations ruled different areas in the vicinity of the Altay mountains. During the establishment of the Göktürk state, Oghuz tribes inhabited the Altay mountain region and also lived in northeastern areas of the Altay mountains along the Tula River. They were also present as a community near the Barlik River in present-day northern Mongolia.
Their main homeland and domain in the ensuing centuries was the area of Transoxiana, in western Turkestan.
This land became known as the "Oghuz steppe", which is an area between the Caspian and Aral Seas. Ibn al-Athir, an Arab historian, declared that the Oghuz Turks had come to Transoxiana in the period of the caliph Al-Mahdi in the years between 775 and 785. In the period of the Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun (813–833), the name Oghuz starts to appear in the works of Islamic writers. By 780, the eastern parts of the Syr Darya were ruled by the Karluk Turks and the western region (Oghuz steppe) was ruled by the Oghuz Turks.

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