The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη,〔(Ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη - bibliotheca Augustana )〕 ''Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē'') is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The Greek New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture. The New Testament (in whole or in part) has frequently accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It reflects and serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Both extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are also incorporated (along with readings from the Old Testament) into the various Christian liturgies. The New Testament has influenced religious, philosophical, and political movements in Christendom, and left an indelible mark on literature, art, and music.
The New Testament is an anthology, a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the first century, at different times by various writers, who were early Jewish disciples of Jesus. In almost all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books. The original texts were written in the first and perhaps the second centuries of the Christian Era, generally believed to be in Koine Greek, which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the Conquests of Alexander the Great (335–323 BC) until the evolution of Byzantine Greeks (c. 600). All the works that eventually became incorporated into the New Testament seem to have been written no later than around 150 AD,〔See the standard New Testament introductions listed below under "Further reading": Goodspeed, Kümmel, Duling and Perrin, Koester, Conzelmann and Lindemann, Brown, and Ehrman.〕 and some scholars would date them all to no later than 70 AD〔Dr. John A. T. Robinson dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD (see link).〕 or 80 AD.〔William F. Albright, 'We can already say emphatically that there is no long any basis for dating any book of the New Testament after about 80 AD http://www.bethinking.org/bible/the-dating-of-the-new-testament (Section 3 Acceptance of Early Dates)〕
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul (a major collection of which must have been made already by the early 2nd century)〔See, e.g., Clabeaux, J. J.: ''A Lost Edition of the Letters of Paul: A Reassessment of the Text of the Pauline Corpus Attested by Marcion''. Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 21; Washington, D.C.: Catholic Biblical Association, 1989〕 and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John (asserted by Irenaeus of Lyon in the late-2nd century as ''the'' Four Gospels) gradually were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic (General) Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were originally absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament. The Old Testament canon is not completely uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, Protestants, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, and the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been almost universally recognized within Christianity (see Development of the New Testament canon).
The New Testament consists of
*four narratives of the life, teaching, death and resurrection of Jesus, called "gospels" (or "good news" accounts);
*a narrative of the Apostles' ministries in the early church, called the "Acts of the Apostles", and probably written by the same writer as the Gospel of Luke, which it continues;
*twenty-one letters, often called "epistles" in the biblical context, written by various authors, and consisting of Christian doctrine, counsel, instruction, and conflict resolution; and
*an Apocalypse, the Book of Revelation, which is a book of prophecy, containing some instructions to seven local congregations of Asia Minor, but mostly containing prophetical semiotics, about the end times.
==Between the Testaments==
(詳細はOld Testament and the beginning of the New Testament. According to the Bible, the Kingdom of Israel had reached its height under King David a thousand years earlier but was no longer in existence as a political entity.
In 587 BC, the southern Kingdom of Judah with its capital Jerusalem had been conquered by the Babylonians who destroyed the First Temple and forced the Jewish population into exile, known as the Babylonian exile. Fifty years later, Cyrus of Persia permitted the Jews to return and build yet a new temple, the Second Temple, only to have it destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD. Thus, the span of Jewish history from 515 BC to 70 AD is often referred to as the Second Temple period. Within it are four subdivisions:
*The Persian Period (c. 537 – 332 BC).
*Jewish nation ruled by high priests
*Minimal interference from the Persian kings
*Synagogues became significant sites for teaching and worship
*The Torah became the focal point of their religion
*The Hellenistic Period (c. 332 – 167 BC)
*The Holy Land came under Greek control during conquests by Alexander the Great
*198–167 BC was a reign of terror during which Jews suffered persecution from Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, who sought to exterminate Judaism by force
*The Hasmonean Period (167–63 BC)
*Jewish rebels nicknamed "Maccabees" ("hammers") led revolt against Antiochus and won independence. Rededication of the Second Temple (defiled by Antiochus) is the origin of Hanukkah. Two important Jewish sects, Pharisees and Sadducees, emerged.
*The Roman Period (beginning in 63 BC)
*Roman general Pompey conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC
*Herod the Great appointed as client king of the Jews by the Roman Senate (37 – 4 BC)
*Census of Quirinius and Roman Judea (6 AD – 135 AD)
*Includes the time of the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age
*Also the story of what happens among Jews who lived in the Holy Land and what happens to the Roman Empire as a result.〔Powell, Mark A. ''Introducing the New Testament: A historical, literary, and theological survey.'' Grand Rapids: Baker Academic 2009. ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7〕
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