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New Netherland : ウィキペディア英語版
New Netherland

New Netherland (Dutch: ''Nieuw-Nederland'', Latin: ''Nova Belgica'' or ''Novum Belgium'') was a 17th-century colonial province of the Seven United Netherlands that was located on the East Coast of North America. The claimed territories extended from the Delmarva Peninsula to extreme southwestern Cape Cod, while the more limited settled areas are now part of the Mid-Atlantic States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.
The colony was conceived as a private business venture to exploit the North American fur trade. During its first decades, New Netherland was settled rather slowly, partially as a result of policy mismanagement by the Dutch West India Company (WIC) and partially as a result of conflicts with Native Americans. The settlement of New Sweden encroached on its southern flank, while its northern border was re-drawn to accommodate an expanding New England. During the 1650s, the colony experienced dramatic growth and became a major port for trade in the North Atlantic. The surrender of Fort Amsterdam to England in 1664 was formalized in 1667, contributing to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. In 1673, the Dutch re-took the area but relinquished it under the Second Treaty of Westminster ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War the next year.
The inhabitants of New Netherland were Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans, the latter chiefly imported as enslaved laborers. Descendants of the original settlers played a prominent role in colonial America. For two centuries, New Netherland Dutch culture characterized the region (today's Capital District around Albany, the Hudson Valley, western Long Island, northeastern New Jersey, and New York City).
In the 17th century, Europe was undergoing expansive social, cultural, and economic growth. In the Netherlands this is known as the Dutch Golden Age. Nations vied for domination of lucrative trade routes across the globe, particularly those to Asia. Simultaneously, philosophical and theological conflicts were manifested in military battles across the continent. The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands had become a home to many intellectuals, international businessmen, and religious refugees. In the Americas, the English had a settlement at Jamestown, the French had a small settlements at Port Royal and Quebec, and the Spanish were developing colonies to exploit trade in South America and the Caribbean.
In 1609 Henry Hudson, an English sea captain and explorer, was hired by the Dutch East India Company emigres running the Dutch East India Company (VOC) located in Amsterdam,〔(【引用サイトリンク】 work = The Brussels Journal )
〕 to find a Northeast Passage to Asia sailing around Scandinavia and Russia. Turned back by the ice of the Arctic in his second attempt, he sailed west to seek a northwest passage rather than return home and ended up exploring the waters off the east coast of North America aboard the ''vlieboot'', ''Halve Maen''. His first landfall was at Newfoundland and the second at Cape Cod. Believing the passage to the Pacific ocean was between the St. Lawrence River and Chesapeake Bay, Hudson sailed south to the Bay then turned northward, traveling close along the shore. He first discovered Delaware Bay and began to sail upriver looking for the passage. This effort was foiled by sandy shoals, and the ''Halve Maen'' continued north. After passing Sandy Hook, Hudson and his crew entered the narrows into the Upper New York Bay. (Unbeknownst to Hudson, the narrows had already been discovered in 1524 by explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano; today the bridge spanning them is named after him.) Believing he may have found the continental water route, Hudson sailed up the major river which would later bear his name (the Hudson). Days later, at the site of present-day Albany, he found the water too shallow to proceed.〔(''Nieuwe Wereldt ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien, uit veelerhande Schriften ende Aen-teekeningen van verscheyden Natien (Leiden, Bonaventure & Abraham Elseviers, 1625) )''p.84:"/tot by de 43 graden by noorden de linie/ alwaer de rivier heel nauw werdt ende ondiep/ soo dat sy terugghe keerden."("up to 43 degrees north by the line/ where the river got very narrow and shallow/ upon which they returned")〕
Upon returning to the Netherlands, Hudson reported having found a fertile land and an amicable people willing to engage his crew in small-scale bartering of furs, trinkets, clothes, and small manufactured goods. His report, first published by the Antwerp emigre and Dutch Consul at London, Emanuel Van Meteren, in 1611,〔 stimulated interest〔(''Nieuwe Wereldt ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien, uit veelerhande Schriften ende Aen-teekeningen van verscheyden Natien (Leiden, Bonaventure & Abraham Elseviers, 1625)'' ) p.84: "Hendrick Hudson met dit raport wederghekeert zijnde 't Amsterdam/ zoo hebben eenighe koop-lieden in den jare 1610 weder een schip derwaerts gezonden/ te weten naer deze tweede rivier/ de welcke zij den naem gaven van Manhattes" ("As soon as Hudson returned with his report to Amsterdam, merchants sent another ship in 1610 specifically to this second river, to which they gave the name Manhattes")〕 in exploiting this new trade resource, and was the catalyst for Dutch merchant-traders to fund more expeditions. Flemish Lutheran emigre merchants, such as Arnout Vogels, sent the first follow up voyages to exploit this discovery as early as July 1610.〔
In 1611–1612, the Admiralty of Amsterdam sent two covert expeditions to find a passage to China with the yachts ''Craen'' and ''Vos'', captained by Jan Cornelisz Mey and Symon Willemsz Cat, respectively. In four voyages made between 1611 and 1614, the area between present-day Maryland and Massachusetts was explored, surveyed, and charted by Adriaen Block, Hendrick Christiaensen, and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey. The results of these explorations, surveys, and charts made from 1609 through 1614 were consolidated in Block’s map, which used the name ''New Netherland'' for the first time. On maps, it was also called ''Nova Belgica''. During this period there was some trading with the native population.
Fur trader Juan Rodriguez (in Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. He was the first recorded non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City.〔(Juan Rodriguez monograph ). Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved on July 23, 2013.〕〔(Honoring Juan Rodriguez, a Settler of New York - NYTimes.com ). Cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on July 23, 2013.〕

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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