| Navy Cross (United States) ： ウィキペディア英語版|
The United States Navy Cross is the second-highest military decoration for valor the nation awards, second only to the Medal of Honor. The Navy Cross is primarily awarded to a member of the United States Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, or U.S. Coast Guard (when operating under the Department of the Navy) for extraordinary heroism in combat.〔SECNAVYINST 2006, 1650.1H, P. 2--22&23〕 It is equivalent to the Army's Distinguished Service Cross, the Air Force's Air Force Cross and the Coast Guard's Coast Guard Cross.
The Navy Cross is bestowed by the Secretary of the Navy and may also be awarded to members of the other armed services, and to foreign military personnel while serving with the U.S. naval services. The Navy Cross was established by Act of Congress (Public Law 65-253) and approved on February 4, 1919.
The Navy Cross was instituted in part due to the entrance of the United States into World War I. Many European nations had the custom of decorating heroes from other nations, but the Medal of Honor was the sole American award for valor at the time. The Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and Distinguished Service Medal in 1918, while the Navy followed suit in 1919, retroactive to 6 April 1917. Originally, the Navy Cross was lower in precedence than the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, because it was awarded for both combat heroism and for "other distinguished service."〔 Congress revised this on 7 August 1942, making the Navy Cross a combat-only award and second only to the Medal of Honor. Since its creation, it has been awarded more than 6,300 times.〔 It was designed by James Earle Fraser.〔
The first actual recipient of the Navy Cross is unknown because initial awards were made from a lengthy list published after World War I.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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