| website = (Iran)
| country = Iran
The National Front of Iran ((ペルシア語:جبههی ملی ایران) ''Jebhe Melli Irân'') is a political opposition party founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh and other secular Iranian nationalist leaders who had been educated in France in the late 1940s. It held power in the Iranian parliament for several years prior to the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and continued as an opposition force thereafter.
==The Mossadegh Era (1949-1953)==
Founded in the late 1940s by Mohammad Mosaddegh, the National Front was a political coalition comprising a broad spectrum of parties and associations. The most important groups in the Front were the Iran Party, the Toilers Party, the National Party, and the Tehran Association of Bazaar Trade and Craft Guilds.〔Âbrâhâmiân, Ervand, ''A History of Modern Iran'', Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 115〕
Soon after its founding, the National Front opposed the existing Western domination and control of Iran's natural resources, and related revenues, which began with colonialist concessions given during the Qajar Dynasty. By the mid-1950s, Iran's oil assets were owned by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, whose predecessor company bought the concession from William Knox D'Arcy.〔''All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror'', by Stephen Kinzer, (John Wiley and Sons, 2003), p. 33〕 D'Arcy had negotiated the concession in 1901 with Mozzafar al-Din Shah Qajar, the Shah of Persia, who granted a 60-year petroleum search concession in a transaction in which no money changed hands.〔Elwell-Sutton, L. P. ''Persian Oil: A Study in Power Politics'' (Lawrence and Wishart Ltd.: London) 1955. p. 15〕 For most of the first half of the twentieth century, Iran's oil was the British government's single largest overseas investment; 51 percent of the company was owned by the British government.〔("The Company File—From Anglo-Persian Oil to BP Amoco" )〕 The AIOC, which later became BP, consistently violated the terms of the agreement that had been updated in 1933, and was reluctant to change the terms of the agreement even as Iran's movement for nationalization grew in the late 1940s.〔''U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran'' by Mark J. Gasiorowski (Cornell University Press: 1991) p. 59〕 Although AIOC was highly profitable, "its Iranian workers were poorly paid and lived in squalid conditions."
The goal of the National Front was to nationalize Iran's oil resources and to counteract British dominance of Iran's internal affairs by initiating direct relations with the United States. The National Front became the governing coalition when it took office in April 1951 with Mosaddegh elected Prime Minister. Mosaddegh's minister of foreign affairs Hosseyn Fâtemi enforced the "Oil Nationalization Act", passed by the Majlis in March and ratified by the Senate. The act, reluctantly signed by the shah, called for nationalization of the assets held by AIOC, from which the government of Iran then only received minimal compensation. This led to British counter-moves and the loss of nearly all income during the Abadan Crisis.
Following Britain's request, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the Central Intelligence Agency to overthrow the Mossadegh government in an event known as the 1953 Iranian coup d'état. Prior to the coup, the National Front was made up of four main parties; the Iran Party, which was founded in 1946 as a platform for Iranian liberals, including figures such as Karim Sanjâbi, Gholam Hossein Sadighi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh and Allah-Yar Saleh); the Toilers Party of the Iranian Nation (a left-wing party that advocated a non-communist socialist Iran, led by Mozzafar Baghai and Khalil Maleki); and the Mojâhedine Eslâm (an Islamic party led by Âyatollâh Âbol-Ghâsem Kâšâni).〔(''The Essential Middle East: A Comprehensive Guide'' by Dilip Hiro )〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
■ウィキペディアで「National Front (Iran)」の詳細全文を読む