Monarchy of Australia
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The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign. Australia is a constitutional monarchy, modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary government, incorporating features unique to the Constitution of Australia.
The present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled ''Queen of Australia'', who has reigned since 6 February 1952. She is represented in Australia by the governor-general, in accordance with the Australian constitution and Letters Patent from the Queen.〔Letters Patent Relating to the Office of Governor‑General of the Commonwealth of Australia, 21 August 1984()〕〔(Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia: Letters Patent Relating to the Office of Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia )〕〔(Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia: Amendment of Letters Patent )〕 In each of the states, the monarch is represented by a governor, appointed directly by the Queen on the advice of each of her respective state governments.
The Australian monarch, besides reigning in Australia, separately serves as monarch for each of 15 other Commonwealth countries known as Commonwealth realms. This developed from the former colonial relationship of these countries to Britain, but they are now independent of each other and are legally distinct.
==International and domestic aspects==
:''Further information: Commonwealth realm: The Crown in the Commonwealth realms''
The monarch of Australia is the same person as the monarch of the 15 other Commonwealth realms within the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; however, each country is sovereign and independent of the others.〔. Royal.gov.uk (22 August 2012).〕〔Report of the Republic Advisory Committee, Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, 1993, p29-30〕 and, effective with the Australia Act 1986, no British government can advise the monarch on any matters pertinent to Australia. Likewise, on all matters relating to any Australian state, the monarch is advised by the ministers of the Crown of that state. The British government is thus considered a foreign power in regard to Australia's domestic and foreign affairs. Still, the High Court of Australia found that those natural-born citizens of other Commonwealth realms who migrated to Australia could not be classified as aliens (as referred to in the constitution) within Australia, given that they owed allegiance to the same monarch and thus are subjects of the Queen of Australia.〔(Te and Dang (2002) 193 ALR 37 and Chu Keng Lim v Minister for Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs (1992) 176 CLR 1 at 54 as referenced in Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library: Prince, Peter; Research Paper no. 3 200304: ''We are Australian–The Constitution and Deportation of Australian-born Children''; Law and Bills Digest Group; 24 November 2003 )〕 However, in Sue v Hill, the High Court of Australia found that the United Kingdom was a foreign power for the purposes of Section 44 of the Australian Constitution, which determines eligibility for parliamentary office.
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