
In chemistry, molecular orbital (MO) theory is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule. The spatial and energetic properties of electrons within atoms are fixed by quantum mechanics to form orbitals that contain these electrons. While atomic orbitals contain electrons ascribed to a single atom, molecular orbitals, which surround a number of atoms in a molecule, contain valence electrons between atoms. Molecular orbital theory, which was proposed in the early twentieth century, revolutionized the study of bonding by approximating the positions of bonded electrons—the molecular orbitals—as Linear Combinations of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO). These approximations are made by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree–Fock (HF) models to the Schrödinger equation. ==Quantitative applications== In this theory, each molecule has a set of molecular orbitals, in which it is assumed that the molecular orbital wave function ''ψ_{j}'' can be written as a simple weighted sum of the n constituent atomic orbitals ''χ_{i}'', according to the following equation: :$\backslash psi\_j\; =\; \backslash sum\_^\; c\_\; \backslash chi\_i.$ One may determine c_{ij} coefficients numerically by substituting this equation into the Schrödinger equation and applying the variational principle. The variational principle is a mathematical technique used in quantum mechanics to build up the coefficients of each atomic orbital basis. A larger coefficient means that the orbital basis is composed more of that particular contributing atomic orbital—hence, the molecular orbital is best characterized by that type. This method of quantifying orbital contribution as Linear Combinations of Atomic Orbitals is used in computational chemistry. An additional unitary transformation can be applied on the system to accelerate the convergence in some computational schemes. Molecular orbital theory was seen as a competitor to valence bond theory in the 1930s, before it was realized that the two methods are closely related and that when extended they become equivalent. 抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』 ■ウィキペディアで「Molecular orbital theory」の詳細全文を読む スポンサード リンク
