Metabotropic glutamate receptor
| Metabotropic glutamate receptor ： ウィキペディア英語版|
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process. They are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs. Like all glutamate receptors, mGluRs bind with glutamate, an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter.
==Function and structure==
The mGluRs perform a variety of functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems: For example, they are involved in learning, memory, anxiety, and the perception of pain. They are found in pre- and postsynaptic neurons in synapses of the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the cerebral cortex, as well as other parts of the brain and in peripheral tissues.
Like other metabotropic receptors, mGluRs have seven transmembrane domains that span the cell membrane. Unlike ionotropic receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors are not ion channels. Instead, they activate biochemical cascades, leading to the modification of other proteins, as for example ion channels. This can lead to changes in the synapse's excitability, for example by presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmission,〔Sladeczek F., Momiyama A.,Takahashi T. (1992). "Presynaptic inhibitory action of metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist on excitatory transmission in visual cortical neurons". Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 1993 253, 297-303.〕 or modulation and even induction of postsynaptic responses.〔〔〔
A dimeric organization of mGluRs is required for signaling induced by agonists.
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