Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Some studies have shown the prevalence in the USA to be an estimated 34% of the adult population, and the prevalence increases with age.
Metabolic syndrome is also known as metabolic syndrome X, cardiometabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven's syndrome (named for Gerald Reaven), and CHAOS (in Australia).〔In his (case studies poster ) presented at the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Conference in Sydney, Australia (February 12–13, 1998), Dr Allen E. Gale, Consultant Physician (Allergy), identifies the acronym CHAOS as an abbreviation for Coronary artery disease, Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Obesity, and Stroke.〕
Metabolic syndrome and prediabetes may be the same disorder, just diagnosed by a different set of biomarkers.
The syndrome is thought to be caused by an underlying disorder of energy utilization and storage. The cause of the syndrome is an area of on-going medical research.
== Signs and symptoms ==
The main sign of metabolic syndrome is central obesity (also known as visceral, male-pattern or apple-shaped adiposity), overweight with adipose tissue accumulation particularly around the waist and trunk.〔(Metabolic syndrome symptoms )〕
Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum triglyceride level (VLDL triglyceride), impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, or prediabetes.
Associated conditions include hyperuricemia, fatty liver (especially in concurrent obesity) progressing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome (in women), erectile dysfunction (in men), and acanthosis nigricans.
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