| Metabolic rift ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Metabolic rift is Karl Marx's notion of the "irreparable rift in the interdependent process of social metabolism,"〔Marx, Karl. 1981. ''Capital, vol. III''. New York: Vintage, p. 949.〕—Marx's key conception of ecological crisis tendencies under capitalism. Marx theorized a rupture in the metabolic interaction between humanity and the rest of nature emanating from capitalist production and the growing division between town and country. This concept has been widely used in recent years in various environmental discussions, particularly on the left.
Metabolic rift, according to John Bellamy Foster who coined the term, is the development of Marx's earlier work in the ''Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts'' on species-being and the relationship between humans and nature. Metabolism is Marx's "mature analysis of the alienation of nature,"〔Foster, John Bellamy (2000) (''Marx's Ecology: Materialism and Nature'' ), New York: Monthly Review Press, p. ix〕 and presents "a more solid—and scientific—way in which to depict the complex, dynamic interchange between human beings and nature, resulting from human labor."
As opposed to those who have attributed to Marx a disregard for nature and responsibility for the environmental problems of the Soviet Union and other purportedly communist states, Foster sees in the theory of metabolic rift evidence of Marx's ecological perspective. The theory of metabolic rift "enable() () to develop a critique of environmental degradation that anticipated much of present-day ecological thought,"〔Foster 2000, p. 142.〕 including questions of sustainability.
== Origins ==
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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