Mary Magdalene ((ヘブライ語:מרים המגדלית), original Greek: Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή),〔Μαρία η Μαγδαληνή in Matt 27:56; 27:61; 28:1; ; ; ; replaces "η" with "τη" because of the case change. says "Μαρία ... η Μαγδαληνή" and says "η Μαγδαληνή Μαρία". , 20:1 and 20:18 all say "Μαρία η Μαγδαληνή".〕 or Mary of Magdala and sometimes The Magdalene, is a figure in Christianity. Mary Magdalene travelled with Jesus as one of his followers. She is said to have witnessed Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection.〔("Mary Magdalene, the clichés". ) BBC, Religions, 2011-07-20.〕 Within the four Gospels she is named at least 12 times, more than most of the apostles. During the Middle Ages she developed a reputation in Western Christianity as being a repentant prostitute or loose woman. This is not supported by the canonical gospels.
The Gospel of Luke says seven demons had gone out of her, and the longer ending of Mark says Jesus had cast seven demons out of her. She is most prominent in the narrative of the crucifixion of Jesus, at which she was present. She was also present two days later, immediately following the sabbath,〔 when, according to all four canonical Gospels, she was either alone or as a member of a group of women the first to testify to the resurrection of Jesus.〔Thompson, Mary R. ''Mary of Magdala, Apostle and Leader.'' New York: Paulist Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8091-3573-6〕 and specifically name her as the first person to see Jesus after his resurrection.
Mary Magdalene was present from the "beginning of a movement that was going to transform the West".〔 She was the "Apostle to the Apostles", an honorific that fourth-century orthodox theologian Augustine gave her〔Doyle, Ken. "Apostle to the apostles: The story of Mary Magdalene". ''Catholictimes'', 11 September 2011 () Accessed 13 March 2013〕 and that others earlier had possibly conferred on her. Ideas that go beyond the gospel presentation of Mary Magdalene as a prominent representative of the women who followed Jesus have been put forward over the centuries. Some have considered her as fulfilling a role similar to that of Simon Peter among the male disciples.〔〔〔
Mary Magdalene is considered to be a saint by the Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches—with a feast day of July 22. Other Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith. The Eastern Orthodox churches also commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of one of the Western Three Marys traditions.
==Identity: Marys in the New Testament==
Mary was a very common name in New Testament times, held by a number of women in the canonical Gospels. The reception history of Mary Magdalene has been greatly affected by different interpretations that biblical references actually refer to her, beyond those where she is identified by the toponym "Magdalene". Historically, the Greek Orthodox church Fathers, as a whole, distinguished among what they believed were three Marys:〔Catholic Encyclopedia Online (St Mary Magdalene ). Accessed 12 Jan 2013〕
* The Virgin Mary, mother of Christ
* Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha and Lazarus and .
* Mary Magdalene
In addition, there were Mary, the mother of James and Mary Salome.
In the four Gospels, Mary Magdalene is nearly always distinguished from other women named Mary by adding "the Magdalene" (ἡ Μαγδαληνή) to her name.〔 This has been interpreted to mean "the woman from Magdala", a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. says that she was actually "called Magdalene". In Hebrew מגדל ''Migdal'' means "tower", "fortress"; in Aramaic, "Magdala" means "tower" or "elevated, great, magnificent".〔See Marvin Meyer, with Esther A. de Boer, ''The Gospels of Mary: The Secret Traditions of Mary Magdalene the Companion of Jesus'' (Harper San Francisco) 2004;Esther de Boer provides an overview of the source texts excerpted in an essay "''Should we all turn and listen to her?': Mary Magdalene in the spotlight". pp.74-96.〕 Talmudic passages speak of a Miriam "hamegadela se’ar nasha", "Miriam, the plaiter of women’s hair" (Hagigah 4b; cf. Shabbat 104b), which could be a reference to Mary Magdalene serving as a hairdresser.
In the Gospel of John, Mary Magdalene is also referred to simply as "Mary" at least twice.〔John 20:11 and John 20:16.〕 Gnostic writings use Mary, Mary Magdalene, or Magdalene.
Mary Magdalene's name is mostly given as Μαρία (Maria), but in as Μαριάμ (Mariam), both of which are regarded as Greek forms of Miriam, the Hebrew name for Moses' sister. The name had become very popular during Jesus' time due to its connections to the ruling Hasmonean and Herodian dynasties.〔''Mariam, The Magdalen, and The Mother'', Deirdre Good, editor, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN 47404-3797. Pages 9-10.〕
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