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Mariah Carey : ウィキペディア英語版
Mariah Carey

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Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1969 or 1970)〔Sources differ. Those giving 1970 include:
Those giving 1969 include:
〕 is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. She rose to prominence after releasing her self-titled debut studio album ''Mariah Carey'' in 1990. It went multiplatinum and spawned four consecutive number one singles on the U.S. ''Billboard'' Hot 100 chart; "Vision of Love", "Love Takes Time", "Someday", and "I Don't Wanna Cry". Under the guidance of Columbia Records executive and later husband Tommy Mottola, Carey continued booking success with follow-up albums ''Emotions'' (1991), ''Music Box'' (1993), and ''Merry Christmas'' (1994), and was established as Columbia's highest-selling act. ''Daydream'' (1995) made music history when its second single "One Sweet Day", a duet with Boyz II Men, spent a record sixteen weeks on top of the ''Billboard'' Hot 100, and it remains the longest-running number-one song in U.S. chart history. During the recording of the album, Carey began to deviate from her slower R&B and ballad-oriented beginnings and slowly transitioned into hip hop. This musical change became further established with the release of ''Butterfly'' (1997), which was released during the midst of her separation from Mottola.
Carey left Columbia in 2000, and signed a $100 million recording contract with Virgin Records America. Before the release of her film ''Glitter'' (2001), she suffered a physical and emotional breakdown and was hospitalized for severe exhaustion. Following the film and album's negative reception, she was bought out of her recording contract for $50 million, which led to a decline in her career. She signed a multimillion dollar contract deal with Island Records in 2002, and after an unsuccessful period, returned to the top of music charts with ''The Emancipation of Mimi'' (2005). Its second single "We Belong Together" became her most successful single of the 2000s, and was later named "Song of the Decade" by ''Billboard''. Carey once again ventured into film with a well-received supporting role in ''Precious'' (2009), and was awarded the "Breakthrough Performance Award" at the Palm Springs International Film Festival.
Throughout her career, Carey has sold more than 200 million records worldwide, making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time. In 1998, she was honored as the world's best-selling recording artist of the 1990s at the World Music Awards. Carey was also named the best-selling female artist of the millennium in 2000. According to the Recording Industry Association of America, she is the third-best-selling female artist in the United States, with 63.5 million certified albums. With the release of "Touch My Body" (2008), Carey gained her 18th number-one single in the United States, more than any other solo artist. In 2012, Carey was ranked second on VH1's list of the "100 Greatest Women in Music". Aside from her commercial accomplishments, Carey has won 5 Grammy Awards, 19 World Music Awards, 11 American Music Awards, and 14 Billboard Music Awards.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Mariah Carey to Perform at 2015 Billboard Music Awards )〕 Referred to as the "songbird supreme" by the ''Guinness World Records'', she is famed for her five-octave vocal range, power, melismatic style and signature use of the whistle register.
==Early life==
Mariah Carey was born in Huntington, New York.〔 Her father, Alfred Roy, was of African American and Venezuelan (including Afro-Venezuelan) descent, while her mother, Patricia (Hickey), is of White Irish descent. The last name Carey was adopted by her Venezuelan grandfather, Francisco Núñez, after immigrating to New York. Patricia was an occasional opera singer and vocal coach before she met Alfred in 1960. As he began earning a living as an aeronautical engineer, the couple wed later that year, and moved into a small suburb in New York.〔 After their elopement, Patricia's family disowned her due to her marrying a black man. Carey later explained that growing up, she felt a notion of neglect from her maternal family, a mark that affected her greatly.〔 During the years between the births of Carey's older sister Alison and herself, the Carey family struggled within the community due to their ethnicity.〔 Carey's name was derived from the song "They Call the Wind Maria", originally from the 1951 Broadway musical ''Paint Your Wagon.'' When Carey was three, her parents divorced.
After their separation, Alison moved in with her father, while the other two children, Mariah and brother Morgan, remained with their mother. Carey would grow apart from her father, and would later stop seeing him altogether.〔 By the age of four, Carey recalled that she had begun to sneak the radio under her covers at night, and just sing and try and find peace within the music.〔 During elementary school, she excelled in subjects that she enjoyed, such as music, art, and literature, but did not find interest in others. After several years of financial struggles, Patricia earned enough money to move her family into a stable and more affluent sector in New York. Carey had begun writing poems and adding melodies to them, thus starting as a singer-songwriter while attending Harborfields High School in Greenlawn, New York. Carey excelled in her music, and demonstrated usage of the whistle register, though only beginning to master and control it through her training with her mother. Though introducing her daughter to classical opera, Patricia never pressured her to pursue a career in it, as she never seemed interested. Carey recalled that she kept her singer-songwriter works a secret and noted that Patricia had "never been a pushy mom. She never said, 'Give it more of an operatic feel'. I respect opera like crazy, but it didn't influence me."〔
While in high school, Carey began writing songs with Gavin Christopher. They needed an assistant who could play the keyboard: "We called someone and he couldn't come, so by accident we stumbled upon Ben (). Ben came to the studio, and he really couldn't play the keyboards very well — he was really more of a drummer — but after that day, we kept in touch, and we sort of clicked as writers."〔 Carey and Christopher began writing and composing songs in the basement of his father's store during Carey's senior year. After composing their first song together, "Here We Go Round Again", which Carey described as having a Motown vibe, they continued writing material for a full-length demo. She began living in a one-bedroom apartment in Manhattan, which she shared with four other female students. Carey worked as a waitress for various restaurants, usually getting fired after two weeks. While requiring work to pay for her rent, Carey still had musical ambitions, as she continued working late into the night with Margulies in hopes of completing a demo.〔 After completing her four song demo tape, Carey attempted to pass it to music labels, but failed each time. Shortly thereafter, she was introduced to rising pop singer Brenda K. Starr.〔

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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