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Lyndon B. Johnson
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Lyndon B. Johnson : ウィキペディア英語版
Lyndon B. Johnson

|rank = 25px Lieutenant commander
|branch = United States Navy
|serviceyears = 1941–1942
|battles = World War II
* Salamaua-Lae campaign
|awards = Silver Star
Presidential Medal of Freedom (Posthumous; 1980)
Lyndon Baines Johnson (; August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963. Johnson was a Democrat from Texas, who served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961. He spent six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader, and two as Senate Majority Whip.
Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he was chosen by Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate. They went on to win the election and Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20, 1961. Two years and ten months later, on November 22, 1963, Johnson succeeded Kennedy as President following the latter's assassination. He ran for a full term in the 1964 election, winning by a landslide over Republican Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater. He is one of four people who have served as President and Vice President, as well as in both houses of Congress.〔
Johnson was strongly supported by the Democratic Party, and as President designed the "Great Society" legislation upholding civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicare, Medicaid, aid to education, the arts, urban and rural development, public services, and his "War on Poverty". Assisted in part by a growing economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during Johnson's presidency. Civil rights bills signed by Johnson banned racial discrimination in public facilities, interstate commerce, the workplace, and housing; and the Voting Rights Act banned certain requirements in southern states used to disenfranchise African Americans. With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed and all national origin quotas were removed. Johnson was renowned for his domineering, sometimes abrasive, personality and the "Johnson treatment"—his aggressive coercion of powerful politicians to advance legislation.
Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use military force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war. The number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased dramatically, from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963, to 550,000 in early 1968, many in combat roles. American casualties soared and the peace process bogged down. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry antiwar movement based especially on university campuses in the U.S. and abroad.
Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots broke out in most major cities after 1965, and crime rates soared, as his opponents raised demands for "law and order" policies. While he began his presidency with widespread approval, support for Johnson declined as the public became upset with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized as antiwar elements denounced Johnson; he ended his bid for renomination after a disappointing finish in the New Hampshire primary. Republican Richard Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed. After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch where he died of a heart attack at age 64 on January 22, 1973.
Historians argue that Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era. Johnson is ranked favorably by some historians because of his domestic policies and the passage of many major laws, affecting civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation, and Social Security.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Survey of Presidential Leadership – Lyndon Johnson )
==Early years==

Lyndon Baines Johnson was born August 27, 1908 in Stonewall, Texas, in a small farmhouse on the Pedernales River, the oldest of five children born to Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. (1877–1937) and Rebekah Baines (1881–1958). Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson (1914–78), and three sisters; Rebekah (1910–78), Josefa (1912–61), and Lucia (1916–97). The nearby small town of Johnson City, Texas, was named after LBJ's cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Johnson had English, Ulster Scot and German ancestry.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Lyndon B. Johnson )〕 He was maternally descended from a pioneer Baptist clergyman, George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana. Baines, the grandfather of Johnson's mother, was also the president of Baylor University during the American Civil War.
Johnson's grandfather, Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr., was raised as a Baptist, and for a time was a member of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). In his later years the grandfather became a Christadelphian; Johnson's father also joined the Christadelphian Church toward the end of his life.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Religion and President Johnson )〕 Later, as a politician, Johnson was influenced in his positive attitude toward Jews by the religious beliefs that his family, especially his grandfather, had shared with him (see Operation Texas). Johnson's favorite Bible verse came from the King James Version of Isaiah 1:18. "Come now, and let us reason together ..."〔"Page 149 of "Killing Kennedy: The End of Camelot" by Bill O'Reilly & Martin Dugard〕
In school, Johnson was an awkward, talkative youth and was elected president of his 11th-grade class. He graduated from Johnson City High School (1924), having participated in public speaking, debate, and baseball.〔Caro 1982.〕 At age 15, Johnson was the youngest member of his class and is believed to have been the youngest graduate of the school. In the months following his graduation, Johnson moved to California amid pressure by his parents to go to college. Johnson supported himself by picking grapes.〔'Oxford University Press'〕 He enrolled in Southwest Texas State Teachers College (SWTSTC) in the summer of 1924, where students from unaccredited high schools could take the 12th-grade courses needed for admission to SWTSTC at San Marcos. Johnson later said that he was kicked out of the school.〔Dallek 1991, p. 57〕
In 1926, Johnson enrolled at SWTSTC (now Texas State University). He worked his way through school, participated in debate and campus politics, and edited the school newspaper, ''The College Star''. The college years refined his skills of persuasion and political organization. For nine months, from 1928 to 1929, Johnson paused his studies to teach Mexican-American children at the segregated Welhausen School in Cotulla, some south of San Antonio in La Salle County. The job helped him to save money to complete his education, and he graduated in 1930. He taught in Pearsall High School in Pearsall, Texas, and afterward took a position as teacher of public speaking at Sam Houston High School in Houston.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=President Lyndon B. Johnson's Biography )〕 When he returned to San Marcos in 1965, after signing the Higher Education Act of 1965, Johnson reminisced:

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