Latin grammar is very different from English grammar in that Latin uses inflected words (words with the same root but different suffixes) to give a phrase or sentence meaning, where English relies much more on word order. Latin grammar, like that of other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflected, and so allows for a large degree of flexibility in choosing word order. For example (omitting capitals and punctuation for simplicity), the sentence ''femina togam texuit'' meaning "the woman wove a toga", represents the preferred word order. However, the meaning could also, if less commonly, be expressed correctly as ''texuit togam femina'' or ''togam texuit femina''. Each word's suffix (''-a'', ''-am'' and ''-uit'') indicates the word's grammatical function as a subject, object and verb, respectively; thus it provides the sentence with its particular meaning. To provide the necessary meanings, there are five regular declensions or forms, for nouns and four regular conjugations or forms, for verbs, but there are also some words that are inflected according to irregular patterns.
Latin word order is generally subject–object–verb. However, variations on this are common, especially in poetry, and can also be used to express subtle nuances in prose. On the other hand, subject-verb-object word order was likely very common in ancient Latin conversation, as it is prominent in the Vulgate Bible and the Romance languages, which evolved from Latin.
Latin does not have articles and so does not generally differentiate between, for example, "a girl" and "the girl": ''puella amat'' means both "a girl loves" and "the girl loves". Unlike English, Latin usually places adjectives after nouns. Latin does use prepositions. Finally, Latin omits pronouns in situations where the meaning is already obvious. Often the form of the verb alone is generally sufficient to identify the agent or subject of the sentence. Latin also exhibits verb framing, in which the path of motion is encoded into the verb rather than in a separate word or phrase. For example, the Latin verb ''exit'' (a compound of (''ex'' ) and (''it'' )) means "he/she/it goes out".
''Detailed information and conjugation tables can be found at Latin conjugation.''
Latin verbs have numerous conjugated forms. Verbs have four moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative and infinitive), two voices (active and passive), two numbers (singular and plural) and three persons (first, second and third). They are conjugated in six main tenses (present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect and future perfect). They have the subjunctive mood for the present, imperfect, perfect and pluperfect. Infinitives and participles occur in the present, perfect and future tenses. As well, they have the imperative mood for present and future.
Conjugation is the process of inflecting verbs; a set of conjugated forms for a single word is called a conjugation. Latin verbs are divided into four different conjugations by their infinitives, distinguished by the endings ''-āre'', ''-ēre'', ''-ere'' and ''-īre''.
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