Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem ((ラテン語:Patriarcha Hierosolymitanus Latinorum)) is the title raising the rank of the see of the Latin Church Catholic Metropolitan Archbishop of Jerusalem.
The Archdiocese of Jerusalem has jurisdiction over all 'Latin Church' Roman Catholics (not Eastern Catholics) in the Holy land (Israel, the Palestinian Territories,- and Jordan) as well as Cyprus. In Jerusalem, the Latin Catholic community is the largest Christian community, with some 4,500 people out of an estimated Christian population of about 11,000.〔(Jerusalem Post, May 8, 2009 - Depths of despair )〕 Since June 2008, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem has been Fouad Twal. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem also holds the office of Grand Prior of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.
In the Catholic Church, the title Patriarch is customarily reserved to the highest ranking bishops of the Eastern Catholic Churches. The Patriarch of Jerusalem is one of four Archbishops of the Latin Church to be called a patriarch, the others being the Patriarchs of Venice, Lisbon and the East Indies (Goa (and Daman), India). These 'minor patriarchs' are Archbishops whose Metropolitan see has as a permanent privilege the honorific title of patriarch, comparable to a primatial see's title primate, yet more prestigious, and may be combined with such title. The honorary patriarchal titles Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, Alexandria and Antioch were abolished in 1964. The title of Patriarch of Jerusalem is also used by the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem and the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem.
== Crusader Patriarchate of Jerusalem ==
In 1054, the Great Schism split Christianity into the Eastern Orthodox Church - which consisted of the four Orthodox Christian Patriarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem, Constantinople and Alexandria - under the stewardship of Constantinople and the Roman Catholic Church, which consisted of the Pope of Rome and virtually all of Western Christianity. All Christians in the Holy Land came under the jurisdiction of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem.
In 1099, the Western Crusaders captured Jerusalem, set up the Kingdom of Jerusalem and established a Latin hierarchy under a Latin Patriarch (in communion with Rome), while expelling the Orthodox Patriarch. The Latin Patriarchate was divided into four archdioceses - their heads bearing the titles of Archbishop of Tyre, Archbishop of Caesarea, Archbishop of Nazareth and Archbishop of Petra - and a number of suffragan dioceses. The Latin Patriarch took over control of the Latin quarter of the city of Jerusalem (the Holy Sepulchre and the immediate surroundings) as his Metropolitan see, and had as his direct suffragans the bishops of Lydda-Ramla, Bethlehem, Hebron and Gaza, and the abbots of the Temple, Mount Sion and the Mount of Olives.
The Latin Patriarch resided in Jerusalem from 1099 to 1187, while Orthodox Patriarchs continued to be appointed, but resided in Constantinople. In 1187, the Crusaders were forced to flee Jerusalem, and the Latin Patriarchy moved to Acre (Akka), while the Orthodox Patriarch returned to Jerusalem. The Catholic Church continued to appoint residential Latin Patriarchs. The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem endured almost 200 years until the last vestiges of the Kingdom were conquered by the Muslim Mamluks in 1291, and the Latin hierarchy was effectively eliminated in the Levant.
With the fall of Acre, the Latin Patriarch moved to Cyprus in 1291.
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