
Ladislaus Josephovich Bortkiewicz (August 7, 1868 – July 15, 1931) was Russian economist and statistician of Polish ancestry, who lived most of his professional life in Germany, where he taught at Strassburg University (Privatdozent, 1895–1897) and Berlin University (1901–1931). ==Life and work== Bortkiewicz was born in Saint Petersburg, Imperial Russia, where he graduated from the Law Faculty in 1890. In 1898 he published a book about the Poisson distribution, titled ''The Law of Small Numbers''.〔Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz, ''Das Gesetz der kleinen Zahlen'' (law of small numbers ) (Leipzig, Germany: B.G. Teubner, 1898). On (page 1 ), Bortkiewicz presents the Poisson distribution. On (pages 23–25 ), Bortkiewicz presents his famous analysis of "4. Beispiel: Die durch Schlag eines Pferdes im preussischen Heere Getöteten." (4. Example: Those killed in the Prussian army by a horse's kick.). On pages 17–20 Bortkiewicz presents his analysis of "1. Beispiel: Die Selbstmorde von Kindern in Preussen." (1. Example: Suicides of children in Prussia.). Bortkiewicz's book is reviewed in: L. v. Bortkewitsch (1898) "Das Gesetz der kleinen Zahlen," ''Monatshefte für Mathematik'', vol. 9, (pages 39–41 ).〕 In this book he first noted that events with low frequency in a large population follow a Poisson distribution even when the probabilities of the events varied. It was that book that made the Prussian horsekick data famous. The data give the number of soldiers killed by being kicked by a horse each year in each of 14 cavalry corps over a 20year period. Bortkiewicz showed that those numbers follow a Poisson distribution. The book also examined data on childsuicides. Some〔p.e. I J Good, Some statistical applications of Poisson's work, Statist. Sci. 1 (2) (1986), 157–180. (JSTOR link )〕 have suggested that the Poisson distribution should have been named the "Bortkiewicz distribution." In political economy, Bortkiewicz is important for his analysis of Karl Marx's reproduction schema in the last two volumes of ''Capital''. Bortkiewicz identified a transformation problem in Marx's work. Making use of Dmitriev's analysis of Ricardo, Bortkiewicz proved that the data used by Marx was sufficient to calculate the general profit rate and relative prices. Though Marx's transformation procedure was not correct—because it did not calculate prices and profit rate simultaneously, but sequentially—Bortkiewicz has shown that it is possible to get the correct results using the Marxian framework, i.e. using the marxian variables constant capital and variable capital it is possible to obtain the profit rate and the relative prices in a threesector model. This "correction of the Marxian system" has been the great contribution of Bortkiewicz to classical and Marxian economics but it was completely unnoticed until Paul Sweezy's 1942 book "Theory of Capitalist Development". Piero Sraffa (1960) has provided the complete generalization of the simultaneous method for classical and Marxian analysis. Bortkiewicz died in Berlin, Germany. His papers, including a voluminous correspondence file (some 1,000 letters 1876–1931), were deposited at Uppsala University in Sweden,〔L.v.Bortkiewicz Archiv, Manuskript & Musik Abteilung, Universitätsbibliothek Uppsala,〕 except for his correspondence with Léon Walras which went into the collection of the Walras scholar William Jaffe in the USA. 抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』 ■ウィキペディアで「Ladislaus Bortkiewicz」の詳細全文を読む スポンサード リンク
