|nickname = The Harbor City (Gangdu), The Maritime Capital, The Waterfront City
|image_skyline = 高雄市.JPG
|imagesize = 280px
|image_caption = Clockwise from top: Kaohsiung night skyline, Kaohsiung LRT, Yushan mountain, Kaohsiung International Airport, Kaohsiung Metro,Port of Kaohsiung
|image_flag = Kaohsiung flag.svg
|image_seal = Emblem of Kaohsiung City.svg
|seal_type = Seal
|seal_size = 120x120px
|image_map = Taiwan ROC political division map Kaohsiung City (2010).svg
|mapsize = 200px
|map_caption = Kaohsiung City shown within the Taiwan islands
|image_map1 = Kaohsiung, Pingtung and Kaoping River.JPG
|mapsize1 = 200px
|map_caption1 = Satellite image of Kaohsiung
|coordinates_display = inline,title
|coordinates_region = TW
|subdivision_type = Country
|subdivision_type1 = Region
|subdivision_name1 = Southern Taiwan
|subdivision_type2 = City seat
|subdivision_name2 = Lingya District and
|leader_title1 = Mayor
|leader_name1 = Kiku Chen (DPP)
|leader_title2 = Deputy Mayor
|leader_name2 = Liu Shih-fang
|area_total_km2 = 2,951.8524
|area_note = Rank 4
|population_as_of = December 2014
|population_note = Rank 2
|population_total = 2,778,992
|population_density_km2 = auto
|timezone = National Standard Time
|utc_offset = +8
|latd=22 |latm=38 |lats= |latNS=N
|longd=120 |longm=16 |longs= |longEW=E
|elevation_m = 9
|postal_code_type = Postal code
|postal_code = 800–852
|area_code = (0)7
|iso_code = TW–KHH
|blank_name_sec1 = Districts
|blank_info_sec1 = 38
|website = (www.kcg.gov.tw/EN )
|blank_name_sec2 = Flower
|blank_info_sec2 = Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
|blank1_name_sec2 = Tree
|blank1_info_sec2 = Cotton Tree (Bombax ceiba)
Kaohsiung City (; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality in Taiwan. Located in southern-western Taiwan and facing the Taiwan Strait, it is by area the largest municipality, at , and second most populous (by urban area) with a population of approximately 2.77 million. Since its start in the 17th century, Kaohsiung has grown from a small trading village, into the political, economic, transportation, manufacturing, refining, shipbuilding, and industrial center of southern Taiwan. It is a global city with sufficiency as categorized by Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2012.
The Kaohsiung International Airport is the third largest airport in Taiwan. The Port of Kaohsiung is the largest harbor in Taiwan, but not officially part of Kaohsiung City. The southern terminal of the Freeway 1 is in Kaohsiung. For north-south travel on railway, the city is served by the Taiwan Railways Administration stations of TRA Western Line and Pingtung Line. The Taiwan High Speed Rail also provides fast and frequent railway connection to Taipei. The Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit, the city's subway system, was launched in early 2008. Kaohsiung was the host city of the World Games 2009, a multi-sport event primarily composed of sports not featured in the Olympic Games. The city is also home to the Republic of China Navy fleet headquarters and academy.
==Etymology and names==
Hoklo immigrants to the area during the 16th and 17th centuries called it ''Takau'' (). The surface meaning of the associated Chinese characters was "beat the dog".
According to one theory, the name Takau originates from the aboriginal Siraya language and translates as "bamboo forest". According to another theory, the name evolved via metathesis from the name of the Makatao tribe, who inhabited the area at the time of European and Hoklo settlement. On a linguistic basis, the Makatao are considered to have been part of a greater Siraya tribe.
During the Dutch colonization of southern Taiwan, the area was known as ''Tancoia'' to the western world for a period of about three decades. In 1662, the Dutch were expelled by the Kingdom of Tungning government, founded by Ming loyalists of Koxinga. His son, Zheng Jing, renamed the village ''Wannian Zhou'' () in 1664.
The name of "Takau" was restored in the late 1670s, when the town expanded dramatically with immigrants from mainland China, and was kept through Taiwan's cession to the Japanese Empire in 1895. In his 1903 general history of Taiwan, US Consul to Formosa (1898–1904) James W. Davidson relates that "Takow" was already a well-known name in English. However, in 1920, the Japanese changed the name to (romaji: ''Takao'') and administered the area under Takao Prefecture. While the new name, as pronounced in Japanese, sounded more or less the same as the old name spoken in Hokkien, the different characters changed the literal meaning of the name from "beating dog" to "high bravery".
After the Republic of China took control of Taiwan, the government continued to use the characters , but as they promoted Standard Chinese, the official romanization became "Kaohsiung" ().
The name ''Takau'' remains the official name of the city in Austronesian languages of Taiwan such as Rukai, although these are not widely spoken in the city. The name also remains popular locally in the naming of businesses, associations, and events.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』