| Kailasam Balachander ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Kailasam Balachander (9 July 1930 – 23 December 2014) was an Indian director, producer, writer, actor, playwright, stage conductor, and comedian who worked mainly in the Tamil film industry. He was well known for his distinct film-making style, and the Indian film industry knew him as a master of unconventional themes and hard-hitting contemporary subject matter. Balachander's films are well known for their portrayal of women as bold personalities and central characters. Popularly referred to as ''Iyakkunar Sigaram'' (Tamil: இயக்குனர் சிகரம் meaning "the director who scaled the peak"), his films are usually centred on unusual or complicated interpersonal relationships and social themes. Starting his cinematic career as a screenwriter, Balachander soon graduated as a director with ''Neerkumizhi'' in 1965. He was given a break into Tamil films by M. G. Ramachandran.〔http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/tamil/movies/news/When-MGR-introduced-K-Balachander-to-films/articleshow/45626531.cms〕
In a career that spread over 50 years, he had contributed to nearly 100 feature films either as a screenwriter or director, thus becoming one of the most prolific film-makers in the country. Known among his colleagues as a tough task master, he was credited with having nurtured numerous actors, notably Nagesh, Sujatha, Kamal Haasan, Rajinikanth, Nassar, Chiranjeevi, Jayaprada, Jayasudha, Saritha, Renuka, Prakash Raj , Ramesh Aravind and Vivek.
As of 2013, Balachander had won nine National Film Awards and 13 Filmfare Awards. He was honored with the Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian award, in 1987, and is a recipient of the ANR National Award and Dadasaheb Phalke Award, India's highest award in cinema. K. Balachander is revered as one of the best directors India has ever produced.
A production house named Kavithalaya Productions which has been producing films since 1981 is Balachander's very own production house. Apart from Tamil, he had made films in other languages such as Telugu, Kannada and Hindi. He had also made a few film appearances and has directed a few TV serials as well. In the late 80s Balachander was one of the first to recognise and accept the development of TV as a very powerful media and created his own production house named Minbimbangal Productions along with his first son Bala Kailasam. Minbimbangal was considered by many as a pioneer in daily serials in Television media.
==Early life and background==
K. Balachander was born in 1930 into a Tamil household,〔http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/dadasaheb-phalke-for-k-balachander/1/136687.html〕 at Nannilam in the then Tanjore district (now Tiruvarur district), India.〔http://cinema.maalaimalar.com/2013/12/23234000/cinema-history.html〕 Balachander stated that, "From my eighth year I've been seeing cinema" and recalls that his earliest interest towards cinema grew after watching films of M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar, then the Superstar of Tamil cinema. At the age of twelve he was drawn to theatre and drama, which eventually helped him develop an interest in acting, writing and directing amateur plays.〔〔http://web.archive.org/web/20000309182240/http://dinakaran.com/cinema/english/cinebio/16-06-99/balachan.htm〕 His obsession towards theatre continued even while doing his graduation (in Zoology) at the Annamalai University, as he regularly took part in stage plays. After completing his graduation in 1949, he started his career as a school teacher in Muthupet, Tiruvarur district. In 1950, he moved to Madras (now Chennai) and joined the Accountant General's office as an apprentice clerk, and during this time he joined "United Amateur Artistes", an amateur drama company. Soon he formed his own troupe and it was during this time he came to prominence as an amateur playwright with ''Major Chandrakanth'', written in English. As the scope of English was highly limited in Madras, he re-wrote the play in Tamil, which ultimately became a "sensation" among the people. Balachander's acting troupe consisted of people from the Tamil film industry such as Major Sundarrajan, Nagesh, Sreekanth and Sowcar Janaki.〔 Sunderrajan appeared in over 900 films, Nagesh in over 1,000, Sreekanth in more than 200 films, and Sowkar Janaki appeared in more than 350 films. Other plays written by Balachander include ''Server Sundaram'' (''Waiter Sundaram''), ''Neerkumizhi'' (''Water Bubble''), ''Mezhuguvarthi'' (''Candle''), ''Naanal'' (''Tall Grass'') and ''Navagraham'' (''Nine Planets''). All these produced and directed by him, were received well by the critics.〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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