| Juris Doctor ： ウィキペディア英語版|
The ''Juris Doctor'' degree (J.D. or JD) or Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (D.Jur. or DJur) is a professional doctorate〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://aaude.org/documents/public/reference/glossary-graded.doc )〕〔 Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.〕〔. Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate〕〔 Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.〕 and first professional graduate degree〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.berkeley.edu/catalog/grad/degrees.html )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://jd.law.unimelb.edu.au/go/about-us/melbourne-jd )〕 in law. The degree is earned by completing law school in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other common law countries. Many who hold the degree of Juris Doctor are individuals who practice law and may choose to focus their practice on criminal law, tort, family law, corporate law, and/or a wide range of other areas.
To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J.D. degree must pass a bar examination.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=North Carolina Board of Law Examiners -NCBLE 919-848-4229 )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=VBBE - Welcome )〕〔http://admissions.calbar.ca.gov/Requirements.aspx〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=BOLE- OFFICIAL PAGE NEW YORK STATE BAR EXAMINATION )〕 The State of Wisconsin, however, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, and in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam, a practice known as the "Diploma Privilege." In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts commonly known as "federal courts." Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court.
The degree was first awarded in the United States in the late 19th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree (such as the ''Dottore in Giurisprudenza'' in Italy and the Juris Utriusque Doctor in Germany and Central Europe).〔Stevens, R. (1971). "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School", in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p. 427.〕 Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a law degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers. It is a three-year program in most jurisdictions.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=JD Program & Policies )〕
==Etymology and abbreviations==
In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English, as ''Juris Doctor'' and at some law schools Doctor of Law (J.D. or JD),〔"JD". Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford University Press. 6 December 2010 〕 or Doctor of Jurisprudence (D.Jur. or DJur), respectively.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=DJUR - Doctor of Jurisprudence - AcronymFinder )〕 "Juris Doctor" literally means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—''Jurisprudentiae Doctor''—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge".
The J.D./D.Jur. is not to be confused with Doctor of Laws or ''Legum Doctor'' (LLD or LL.D.). In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University, it is a "higher doctorate" representing a level of work beyond a research doctorate and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.D. The LL.D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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