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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (; 13 July 100 BC 〔There is some dispute over the year of Caesar's birth. Some scholars, based on the dates he held certain magistracies, have made a case for 101 or 102 BC as the year of his birth, but scholarly consensus favors 100 BC. Goldsworthy, (p. 30 ).〕 – 15 March 44 BC)〔After Caesar's death the leap years were not inserted according to his intent and there is uncertainty about when leap years were observed between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive; the dates in this article between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive are those observed in Rome and there is an uncertainty of about a day as to where those dates would be on the proleptic Julian calendar. See Blackburn, B and Holford-Strevens, L. (1999 corrected 2003). ''The Oxford Companion to the Year''. Oxford University Press. p. 671. ISBN 978-0-19-214231-3〕 was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative ruling class within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.
These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavius, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavius set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.
Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history.
==Early life and career==
(詳細はpatrician family, the ''gens Julia'', which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus.〔 See also: Suetonius, ''Lives of the Twelve Caesars'': ''Julius'' (6 ); Velleius Paterculus, ''Roman History'' (2.41 ); Virgil, ''Aeneid''〕 The ''cognomen'' "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, ''caedere'', ''caes-'').〔Pliny the Elder, ''Natural History'' (7.7 ). The misconception that Julius Caesar himself was born by Caesarian section dates back at least to the 10th century (''Suda'' (kappa 1199 )). Julius wasn't the first to bear the name, and in his time the procedure was only performed on dead women, while Caesar's mother, Aurelia, lived long after he was born.〕 The ''Historia Augusta'' suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin ''caesaries''); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin ''oculis caesiis''); or that he killed an elephant (''caesai'' in Moorish) in battle.〔''Historia Augusta'': ''Aelius'' (2 ).〕 Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name.
Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC.〔Goldsworthy, (p. 32 ).〕 Caesar's father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia,〔Suetonius, ''Julius'' (1 ); Plutarch, ''Caesar'' (1 ), ''Marius'' (6 ); Pliny the Elder, ''Natural History'' (7.54 ); ''Inscriptiones Italiae'', 13.3.51–52〕 and his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.〔Plutarch, Marius (6 )〕 His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood.〔Plutarch, ''Caesar'' (1 ); Suetonius, ''Julius'' (1 )〕
In 85 BC, Caesar's father died suddenly,〔Suetonius, ''Julius'' (1 ); Pliny the Elder, ''Natural History'' (7.54 )〕 so at 16, Caesar was the head of the family. His coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle, Gaius Marius, and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides, whenever they were in the ascendancy, carried out bloody purges of their political opponents. While Marius and his ally, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, were in control of the city, Caesar was nominated to be the new high priest of Jupiter,〔Velleius Paterculus, ''Roman History'' (2.22 ); Florus, ''Epitome of Roman History'' 2.9〕 and married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia.〔Suetonius, ''Julius'' (1 ); Plutarch, ''Caesar'' (1 ); Velleius Paterculus, ''Roman History'' (2.41 )〕 Following Sulla's final victory, though, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding.〔Canfora, p. 3〕 The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar.〔
Feeling it much safer to be far away from Sulla should the Dictator change his mind, Caesar quit Rome and joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia. He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the Siege of Mytilene. On a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes's fleet, he spent so long at his court that rumors of an affair with the king arose, which Caesar would vehemently deny for the rest of his life.〔Suetonius, ''Julius'' (2–3 ); Plutarch, ''Caesar'' (2–3 ); Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'' (43.20 )〕 Ironically, the loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career, as the high priest of Jupiter was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army.〔William Smith, ''A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities'': ''(Flamen )''〕
Hearing of Sulla's death in 78 BC, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. Lacking means since his inheritance was confiscated, he acquired a modest house in Subura, a lower-class neighborhood of Rome.〔Suetonius, ''Julius'' (46 )〕 He turned to legal advocacy, and became known for his exceptional oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption.
On the way across the Aegean Sea,〔Again, according to Suetonius's chronology (''Julius'' (4 )). Plutarch (''Caesar'' (1.8–2 )) says this happened earlier, on his return from Nicomedes's court. Velleius Paterculus (''Roman History'' (2:41.3–42 )) says merely that it happened when he was a young man.〕 Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held prisoner.〔Plutarch, ''Caesar'' 1–2〕〔(Plutarch, ''Caesar'' )〕 He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of 20 talents of silver, he insisted they ask for 50.〔Freeman, 39〕 After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them. He had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity〔Freeman, 40〕—a promise the pirates had taken as a joke. As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from the east.〔Goldsworthy, 77-78〕
On his return to Rome, he was elected military tribune, a first step in a political career. He was elected ''quaestor'' for 69 BC,〔Freeman, 51〕 and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia, and included images of her husband Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession. His wife, Cornelia, also died that year.〔Freeman, 52〕 After her funeral, in the spring or early summer of 69 BC, Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Spain.〔Goldsworthy, 100〕 While there he is said to have encountered a statue of Alexander the Great, and realized with dissatisfaction he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. On his return in 67 BC,〔Goldsworthy, 101〕 he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla, whom he later divorced.〔Suetonius, ''Julius'' (5–8 ); Plutarch, ''Caesar'' (5 ); Velleius Paterculus, ''Roman History'' (2.43 )〕
In 63 BC, he ran for election to the post of ''Pontifex Maximus'', chief priest of the Roman state religion. He ran against two powerful senators. Accusations of bribery were made by all sides. Caesar won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing.〔Velleius Paterculus, ''Roman History'' (2.43 ); Plutarch, ''Caesar'' (7 ); Suetonius, ''Julius'' (13 )〕 When Cicero, who was consul that year, exposed Catiline's conspiracy to seize control of the republic, several senators accused Caesar of involvement in the plot.〔Sallust, ''Catiline War'' (49 )〕
After serving as ''praetor'' in 62 BC, Caesar was appointed to govern Hispania Ulterior (modern south-eastern Spain) as ''propraetor'', though some sources suggest he held proconsular powers.〔T.R.S. Broughton, ''The Magistrates of the Roman Republic'' (American Philological Association, 1952), vol. 2, pp. 180 and 173.〕 He was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of Rome's richest men. In return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey, Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others. Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and thus be open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Spain, he conquered two local tribes and was hailed as ''imperator'' by his troops, reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem.〔Plutarch, ''Caesar'' (11–12 ); Suetonius, ''Julius'' (18.1 )〕
Caesar was acclaimed ''Imperator'' in 60 and 45 BC. In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. After an especially great victory, army troops in the field would proclaim their commander ''imperator'', an acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph. However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen. He could not do both in the time available. He asked the senate for permission to stand ''in absentia'', but Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship.〔Plutarch, ''Julius'' (13 ); Suetonius, ''Julius'' (18.2 )〕

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