Integrated Child Development Services
| Integrated Child Development Services ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) (Hindi: समेकित बाल विकास सेवाए) is an Indian government welfare programme which provides food, preschool education, and primary healthcare to children under 6 years of age and their mothers. These services are provided from ''Anganwadi'' centres established mainly in rural areas and staffed with frontline workers. In addition to fighting malnutrition and ill health, the programme is also intended to combat gender inequality by providing girls the same resources as boys.
A 2005 study found that the ICDS programme was not particularly effective in reducing malnutrition, largely because of implementation problems and because the poorest states had received the least coverage and funding.〔 During the 2012–13 fiscal year, the Indian central government spent on the programme. The widespread network of ICDS has an important role in combating malnutrition especially for children of weaker groups.
Majority of children in India have underprivileged childhoods starting from birth. The infant mortality rate of Indian children is 44〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-11-01/health/34749209_1_infant-mortality-rate-death-rate-sample-registration-system )〕 and the under-five mortality rate is 93 and 25% of newborn children are underweight among other nutritional, immunization and educational deficiencies of children in India. Figures for India are substantially worse than the ''developing country average''.〔
ICDS was launched in 1975〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://wcd.nic.in/icds.htm )〕 in accordance to the National Policy for Children in India. Over the years it has grown into one of the largest integrated family and community welfare schemes in the world.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.unicef.org/sowc01/panels/panel7.htm )〕 Given its effectiveness over the last few decades, Government of India has committed towards ensuring universal availability of the programme.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.thehindu.com/health/policy-and-issues/article1130983.ece )〕
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