The Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) is now known as the Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy and is a part of the National Defence University (USA).
The (Eisenhower School ) is a United States military educational institution tasked with preparing selected military officers and civilians for senior national security leadership positions dealing with the resource component of national power. The college conducts postgraduate, executive-level courses of study and associated research, awarding a Master of Science degree in national resource strategy to its graduates. Special emphasis is placed on materiel acquisition, joint logistics, and their integration into national security strategy.
The United States suffered severe mobilization difficulties during World War I. To minimized a recurrence, the ''Army Industrial College'' was established in 1924 to focus on wartime procurement and mobilization procedures.〔Gropman, Alan L., "Army Industrial College," ''Professional Military Education in the United States'' edited by William E. Simons, Greenwood Press, Westport Connecticut, 2000, pp. 55-57.〕〔("The History of NDU" ), National Defense University, United States Department of Defense, Fort McNair, Washington, District of Columbia, accessed 6 February 2015.〕〔(Mission ), The Eisenhower School, National Defense University, United States Department of Defense, Fort McNair, Washington, District of Columbia, accessed 6 February 2015.〕 Bernard M. Baruch, a prominent Wall Street speculator and Chairman of the War Industries Board, is regarded as one of the founding fathers.
The first class at the Army Industrial College had only nine students, but by the early 1930s the college was graduating 40 to 50 students in each class. During the first three years, the college provided a five-month course of study. In 1927, the program was expanded to ten-months with one graduating class each year. Major Dwight D. Eisenhower graduated from the college in 1933 and later served on the faculty. In 1940, the colleges expanded to two classes and then graduated four classes in 1941. The college was closed in December 1941 after Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor to make officers available to support the World War II. By that time approximately 1,000 officers had been trained at the college.〔
The college re-opened in December 1943. Before war's end senior Army officers, including General Eisenhower (who was then the Allied Supreme Commander of the European Theatre), supported the concept of a joint war college to study mobilization planning and military logistics. In 1946, the school's name was changed to the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. ICAF moved to Fort McNair, near the newly founded National War College. The Industrial College offered a ten-month academic program for selected high potential officers.〔Gropman, Alan L., "Industrial College of the Armed Forces," ''Professional Military Education in the United States'' edited by William E. Simons, Greenwood Press, Westport Connecticut, 2000, pp. 159-162.〕 In 1948, Secretary of Defense James V. Forrestal, removed the college from the Army’s jurisdiction and reconstituted it “as a joint educational institution under the direction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.”〔
ICAF moved into a newly constructed facility, Eisenhower Hall in 1960. During the next several years the character of ICAF changed dramatically. As the United States found itself increasingly involved in the Vietnam War, ICAF shifted from focusing on national industrial mobilization to educating leaders to manage logistical resources in such conflicts. Student demographics changed, with the first woman and African American students graduated in 1973.
In 1976, ICAF became part of the newly established National Defense University. The Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 called for substantially increased attention to joint military education. In response the college expanded its curriculum, adding a joint operations module and a mandatory acquisition course.〔 In 1991, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff gave ICAF responsibility for conducting a senior acquisition program military and civilian personnel from all the Services and Department of Defense agencies. The new senior acquisition program was offered in conjunction with the Defense Acquisition University.〔〔Price, David E., "Defense Acquisition University", ''Professional Military Education in the United States'' edited by William E. Simons, Greenwood Press, Westport Connecticut, 2000, pp. 118-120.〕
In 1993, Congress passed legislation authorizing the Industrial College to award Master’s degree in national resource strategy. The graduating of the class of 1994 was the first to be awarded a Master's degree.〔〔〔
In 2013, the college was re-named ''The Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy''. It is now commonly known as ''The Eisenhower School''. Today, the official mission of the college is to: “Prepare selected military officers and civilians for strategic leadership and success in developing our national security strategy and in evaluating, marshalling, and managing resources in the execution of that strategy.”〔
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