|area code = 717
Harrisburg (Pennsylvania German: ''Harrisbarig'') is the capital city of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 49,673, it is the ninth-largest city in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. It lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, west-northwest of Philadelphia and east of Pittsburgh.
The Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Dauphin, Cumberland, and Perry counties, had a population of 509,074 in 2000 and grew to 549,850 in 2010. A July 1, 2007 estimate placed the population at 528,892, making it the fifth largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in Pennsylvania after Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown−Bethlehem−Easton (the Lehigh Valley), and Scranton−Wilkes Barre. The Harrisburg-Carlisle-Lebanon Combined Statistical Area, including both the Harrisburg-Carlisle and Lebanon Metropolitan Statistical Areas, had an estimated population of 656,781 in 2007 and was the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the state.
Harrisburg played a notable role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, and the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and later the Pennsylvania Railroad allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States. The U.S. Navy ship USS ''Harrisburg'', which served from 1918 to 1919 at the end of World War I, was named in honor of the city.
In the mid-to-late 20th century, the city's economic fortunes fluctuated with its major industries consisting of government, heavy manufacturing including the production of steel, agriculture (the greater Harrisburg area is at the heart of the fertile Pennsylvania Dutch Country), and food services (nearby Hershey is home of the chocolate maker, located just east of Harrisburg).
The Pennsylvania Farm Show, the largest free indoor agriculture exposition in the United States, was first held in Harrisburg in 1917 and has been held there every early-to-mid January since then.〔(75th Farm Show: A History of Pennsylvania's Annual Agricultural Exposition ) Dan Cupper, Accessed January 29, 2010.〕 Harrisburg also hosts an annual outdoor sports show, the largest of its kind in North America, as well as an auto show, which features a large static display of new as well as classic cars and is renowned nationwide. Harrisburg is also known for the Three Mile Island accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979 near Middletown.
In 2010 ''Forbes'' rated Harrisburg as the second best place in the U.S. to raise a family. Despite the city's recent financial troubles, in 2010 The Daily Beast website ranked 20 metropolitan areas across the country as being recession-proof, and the Harrisburg region landed at No. 7. The financial stability of the region is in part due to the high concentration of state and federal government agencies.
The finances of the city itself however, were poorly managed and its inability to repay its bond debt has created an ongoing fiscal crisis.