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| Greek literature ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Greek literature refers to writings composed in areas of Greek influence, throughout the whole period in which the Greek-speaking people have existed. Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until approximately the fifth century AD and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. At the beginning of Greek literature are works of Homer, the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey''. In the classical period many of the genres of western literature became more prominent. The two major lyrical poets were Sappho and Pindar. The Classical era also saw the dawn of drama. Two of the most influential historians were Herodotus and Thucydides. In the 4th century BC, three philosophers are notable: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Later Greek poetry flourished primarily in the 3rd century BC. During the Roman era, the physician Galen, in the history of ancient science, is the most significant person in medicine after Hippocrates.
Byzantine literature refers to literature of the Byzantine Empire written in Atticizing, Medieval and early Modern Greek. Chronicles, distinct from historic, arose in this period. Encyclopedias also flourished in this period. Modern Greek literature refers to literature written in common Modern Greek, emerging from late Byzantine times in the 11th century AD. The Cretan Renaissance poem ''Erotokritos'' is the masterpiece of this early period of modern Greek literature. Much later, Diafotismos was an ideological, philological, linguistic and philosophical movement among 18th century Greeks that translate the ideas and values of European Enlightenment into the Greek world. Adamantios Korais and Rigas Feraios are two of the most notable figures.
The years before the Greek Independence, the Ionian islands became the center of the Heptanese School (literature). Notable representatives were Andreas Laskaratos, Andreas Kalvos, Aristotelis Valaoritis and Dionysios Solomos.
Later the intellectual center was transferred in Athens. A major figure of this new era was Kostis Palamas (1859 – 1943), considered "national poet" of Greece. Modern Greek literature is usually (but not exclusively) written in polytonic orthography. Modern Greek literature is represented by many writers, poets and novelists. George Seferis and Odysseas Elytis have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
==Ancient Greek literature (before AD 350)==
(詳細はGreek language until approximately the fifth century AD and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. The Greek language arose from the proto-Indo-European language, though roughly one-third of its words cannot be derived from various reconstructions of the tongue. A number of alphabets and syllabaries had been used to render Greek, but surviving Greek literature was written in a Phoenician-derived alphabet that arose primarily in Greek Ionia and was fully adopted by Athens by the fifth century BC.
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