| German language ： ウィキペディア英語版|
German (ドイツ語:''Deutsch'' ) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A proportion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer are borrowed from French and English. Languages which are most similar to German include Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, the continental Scandinavian languages and Luxembourgish. A ''Germanophone'' is a speaker of the German language either natively or by preference.
German is the most widely spoken (and official) language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Italian province of South Tyrol (Alto Adige) and Liechtenstein; it is also an official (but not majority) language of Belgium and Luxembourg. With slightly different standardized variants (German, Austrian, and Swiss Standard German), German is a pluricentric language. German is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world.〔〔Template:German L1 speakers outside Europe〕 Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language",〔 some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Low German/Plautdietsch〔Jan Goossens: ''ドイツ語:Niederdeutsche Sprache: Versuch einer Definition.'' In: Jan Goossens (Hrsg.): ''ドイツ語:Niederdeutsch: Sprache und Literatur.'' Karl Wachholtz, 2. Auflage, Neumünster 1983, S. 27; Willy Sanders: ''ドイツ語:Sachsensprache, Hansesprache, Plattdeutsch: sprachgeschichtliche Grundzüge des Niederdeutschen.'' Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1982, ISBN 3-525-01213-6, S. 32 f.; Dieter Stellmacher: ''ドイツ語:Niederdeutsche Sprache.'' 2. Auflage, Weidler, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-89693-326-4, S. 92.〕) are alternatively referred to as "languages" and "dialects".〔
One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of about 95 million people worldwide and the most widely spoken native language in the European Union.〔 German also is the third most widely taught foreign language in both the US〔Modern Language Association, February 2015, (Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013 ). Retrieved 2015-07-07.〕 and the EU,〔(Eurostat - Foreign language learning statistics )〕 the second most commonly used scientific language, the third largest contributor to research and development〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=https://www.goethe.de/en/spr/wdl.html )〕 as well as the third most widely used language on websites.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Usage Statistics of Content Languages for Websites, January 2015 )〕 Germany is ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books (including e-books) in the world being published in the German language.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://german.sdsu.edu/why_learn_german.html )〕
== History ==
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