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Francisco France : ウィキペディア英語版
Francisco Franco

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde ((:fɾanˈθisko ˈfɾaŋko βa.aˈmonde); 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general and dictator of Spain from 1936/1939 until his death in 1975. Coming from a military family background, he became the youngest general in Spain and one of the youngest generals in Europe in the 1920s.〔Payne (2000), p. 67〕
As a strong conservative, he was shocked when the monarchy was removed and replaced with a republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Looking to overthrow the republic, Franco and other generals staged a partially successful coup, which started the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco quickly became his faction's only leader.
Franco's ultranationalist faction received military support from several fascist groups, especially Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy, while the Republican side was supported by Spanish communists and anarchists. It also received help from the Soviet Union, Mexico, and the International Brigades. Leaving half a million dead, the war was eventually won by Franco in 1939. He established an autocratic dictatorship, which he defined as a totalitarian state.〔(El “ideal supremo” totalitario de Franco que bendicen con dinero público los académicos de la Historia ). Elplural.com. 26 May 2012. (in Spanish)〕 Franco proclaimed himself head of state and government under the title El Caudillo (the Chief), a term similar to Il Duce (Italian) and Der Führer (German). During the Francoist regime, only one political party was legal: a merger of the monarchist party and the fascist party that helped him during the war, FET y de las JONS.
Franco led a series of politically-motivated violent acts, including but not limited to concentration camps, forced labor and executions, mostly against political and ideological enemies,〔Sinova, J. (2006) ''La censura de prensa durante el franquismo'' (Media Censorship During Franco Regime ). Random House Mondadori. ISBN 84-8346-134-X.〕〔Rodrigo, J. (2005) ''Cautivos: Campos de concentración en la España franquista, 1936–1947'', Editorial Crítica. ISBN 8484326322〕〔Gastón Aguas, J. M. & Mendiola Gonzalo, F. (eds.) ''Los trabajos forzados en la dictadura franquista: Bortxazko lanak diktadura frankistan.'' ISBN 978-84-611-8354-8〕〔Duva, J. (9 November 1998) ("Octavio Alberola, jefe de los libertarios ajusticiados en 1963, regresa a España para defender su inocencia" ). ''Diario El País''〕 causing an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths,〔Richards, Michael (1998) ''A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco's Spain, 1936–1945'', Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521594014. p. 11.〕〔Jackson, Gabriel (2005) ''La república española y la guerra civil RBA'', Barcelona. ISBN 8474230063. p. 466.〕 depending on how death in the more than 190 concentration camps is considered. Franco's Spain maintained an official policy of neutrality during World War II, with the exception of the Blue Division. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from an extreme form of dictatorship to a semi-pluralist authoritarian system.〔(Stanley G. Payne, The Franco Regime, 1936–1975, pp.625-628 )〕 During the Cold War Franco appeared as one of the world’s foremost anticommunist figures; consequently his regime was assisted by the United States, and was asked to join the United Nations and come under NATO's protection. By the 1960s Spain saw progressive economic development and timid democratic improvements.〔("Francisco Franco Biography" )〕
After a 36-year rule, Franco died in 1975. He restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. After a referendum, a new constitution was adopted, which effectively created a democratic regime in Spain.
==Early life==

Franco was born at half past noon on 4 December 1892 at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Ferrol, Galicia. He was baptised thirteen days later at the military church of San Francisco, with the baptismal name Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo; Francisco for his paternal grandfather, Paulino for his godfather, Hermenegildo for his maternal grandmother and godmother, and Teódulo for the saint day of his birth.
His father was of Andalusian ancestry. After relocating to Galicia, the family were strongly involved in the Spanish Navy, and over the span of two centuries produced naval officers for six uninterrupted generations, down to Franco's father Nicolás Franco y Salgado Araújo (22 November 1855 – 22 February 1942).
His mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade (1865 – 28 February 1934). He had two brothers, Nicolás (1891–1977) and Ramón; and two sisters, María del Pilar (1894–1989) and María de la Paz (1899–1903).

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