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Forest of Galtres
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Forest of Galtres : ウィキペディア英語版
Forest of Galtres

The royal Forest of Galtres was established by the Norman kings of England in North Yorkshire, to the north of the Ancient City of York, extending right to its very walls.〔William Combe, ''The History and Antiquities of the City of York'' vol. 2, 1785:177ff: quotes Latin peregrination of the forest bounds; 210, quotes the claim of the mayor and citizens of York claiming freedom from meddling from royal sheriffs or bailiffs in Bootham and other suburban precincts "within the said Forrest", 12 Eliz. (1570/71)〕 The main settlement within the royal forest was the market village of Easingwold,〔Geoffrey C. Cowling, ''The History of Easingwold and the Forest of Galtres'', 1968, is the only modern monographic history.〕 but in 1316 the forest comprised 60 villages in 100,000 acres. The Forest of Galtres was intimately connected with York: Davygate in the city was the site of the forest court and prison, a royal liberty within the city of York; Davygate, from which the forest was administered, commemorates David Le Lardiner, whose father, John the Lardiner, was the Royal Lardiner (steward of the larder, in this case providing venison as well as "tame beasts") for the Forest of Galtres, a title which became hereditary in the family.〔(York History Street by Street: Davygate ); also Combe vol. II 1785:354ff, quoting a charter of Stephen confirming Henry I's grant of the lands and position to ''Johannes de Lardinario'' and his son David; "venison and tame beasts" p. 355f.〕
During the reign of Henry II, the Forest stood at its greatest extent, but by the fifteenth century, concerns were being voiced over the extent of deforestation.〔Gareth Dean, ''Medieval York'' 2008:15.〕
Aside from the kings' pleasure in deer hunting, the forest was a dependable source of timber. For the timber palisades of York Castle, which preceded the stone construction of the 13th century, Galfredo de Cumpton, ''forestario de Gauterio'' ("forester of Galtres"), was ordered to supply timbers from the Forest to York, to repair the bridge and breaches in the ''palicium'', in 1225.〔Noted by Ella S. Armitage, "The early Norman castles of England (Continued)" ''The English Historical Review'' 19 no. 75 (July 1904:417–455) (p. 446 and note 165. )〕
During the Middle Ages, other rights in the royal forests were also valuable, though they conflicted with the preservation of trees. Pannage, the practice of turning out domestic pigs, in order that they may feed on fallen acorns, beechmast, chestnuts or other nuts, was so important that the Domesday Book often valued forest in terms of its capacity to support pigs.〔Jean R. Birrell, "The Medieval English Forest", ''Journal of Forest History'',24.2 (April 1980:78–85) p. 80.〕 The king's foresters collected fees for pannage rights in a typical year, 1319, from pig farmers, at least one of whom was a pork butcher of York.〔Birrell 1980.〕 Some appointments were for a lifetime: on 14 June 1626 Charles I granted ''footfostership'', the keepership of the king's deer in Galtres, to James Rosse, with 4d ''per diem''.〔F. N. R., "Ross Family: Corrigenda et Addenda", ''The Scottish Antiquary, or, Northern Notes and Queries'', 7.25 (1892:15–18) (p. 16 ).〕 Defending the valuable traditional rights of the local peasantry to pasturage within the confines of Galtres led to violence against incursions, even ones legitimated by the king's will: a band of forty armed men assembled from five villages threw down enclosures and burned hedges in the Forest of Galtres in the plague year of 1348.〔Jean Birrell, "Common rights in the medieval forest: disputes and conflicts in the thirteenth century", ''Past & Present'' 117 (November 1987: 22–49) p. 48.〕
Within the Forest of Galtres a motte-and-bailey castle was built at the site of Sheriff Hutton by Ansketil de Bulmer on land given to him by William the Conqueror; it was rebuilt in 1140 by Bertram de Bulmer, Sheriff of York, during the reign of King Stephen〔Its remains can be seen to the south of the churchyard.〕 The extant remains of the stone-built Sheriff Hutton Castle were built at the western end of the village by John, Lord Neville in 1382–98.〔(Sheriff Hutton website ).〕
The poet John Skelton set his musing dream in "The Garlande of Laurell" (1523), "studyously dyuysed at Sheryfhotton Castell, in the Forest of Galtres", where
That me to reste, I lent me to a stump
Of an oke, that sometyme grew full streyghte....
Whylis I stode musynge in this medytatyon
In slumbringe I fell and halfe in a slepe...〔Helen Stearns, "The Date of the Garlande of Laurell", ''Modern Language Notes'', 43.5 (May 1928:314–316), quoted p. 315.〕

From the poem the reader learns that Elizabeth, Countess of Surrey,〔Her husband succeeded as Duke of Norfolk in 1524.〕 with the ladies of her household, was living at Sheriff Hutton. At the time it was a seat of her father-in-law the Duke of Norfolk, who was occupied as general-in-chief of an army raised for the invasion of Scotland.〔Noted by Stearns 1928.〕
During the second quarter of the 17th century, Galtres was disafforested piecemeal, as a result of the Crown's desperate need for ready money. In 1625 a survey was drawn up in relation to the impending sale of the demesne of Sheriff Hutton, which incidentally revealed the ghostly presence of the former village of East Lilling within the park, recalled by the jurors:
East Lilling it is called and retaineth the name of East Lilling township though at this day there do remain but only one house. But by tradition and by apparent ancient buildings and ancient ways for horse and cart visibly discerned and leading unto the place where the town stood within Sheriff Hutton park, it hath been a hamlet of some capacity, though now utterly demolished"〔M. W. Beresford, "The lost villages of medieval England", ''The Geographical Journal'' 117.2 (June 1951):129–147) p. 141: Beresford notes that West Lilling survives as a village today, though the parish name is ''Lilling Ambo'', "Lilling Both".〕

The house known as Sheriff Hutton Park, south-east of the village, was built in 1621 for Sir Arthur Ingram, whose main seat was Temple Newsam; it was recased in more up-to-date style in 1732 for a member of the Thompson family.〔
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford held a new park enclosed within Galtres in 1633 and was attempting unsuccessfully to purchase it outright;〔J. P. Cooper, "The Fortune of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford", ''The Economic History Review'', New Series, 11.2 (1958:227–248) p. 232.〕 Sir John Bourchier had lands in Galtres and was fined and even imprisoned for destroying the fences of Strafford's new park there.〔R.R. Reid, ''The King's council in the North'', 1921, (pg. 421 ), noted in Coopper 1958.〕 Sir Allen Apsley accepted Crown lands in Galtres in lieu of the debt owed him by Charles I.〔Richard Hoyle, ed., ''The Estates of the English Crown, 1558–1640'' (Cambridge University Press) 1992.〕
The Act of Dis-Afforestation of 1629 put an end to the Forest.〔F. Robinson, ''A History of Huntington Parish Church'', 1983:1–5..〕
When York Guildhall was reconstructed after wartime bomb damage, a single oak tree trunk from the Forest of Galtres was used for each oak pillar.〔(York Press: Guildhall )〕

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