| Forest inventory ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Forest inventory is the systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis. An estimate of the value and possible uses of timber is an important part of the broader information required to sustain ecosystems. When taking forest inventory the following are important things to measure and note: species, diameter at breast height (DBH), height, site quality, age, and defects. From the data collected one can calculate the number of trees per acre, the basal area, the volume of trees in an area, and the value of the timber. Inventories can be done for other reasons than just calculating the value. A forest can be cruised to visually assess timber and determine (potential fire hazards and the risk of fire ). The results of this type of inventory can be used in preventative actions and also awareness. Wildlife surveys can be undertaken in conjunction with timber inventory to determine the number and type of wildlife within a forest.
The aim of the statistical forest inventory is to provide comprehensive information about the state and dynamics of forests for strategic and management planning.
Surveying and taking inventory of trees originated in Europe in the late 18th century out of a fear that wood (the main source of fuel) would run out. The first information was organized into maps used to plan out usage. In the early 19th century forest harvesters estimated the volume and dispersal of trees within smaller forests with their eyes. More diverse and larger forests were divided into smaller sections of similar type trees that were individually estimated by visual inspection. These estimates were related together to figure out the entire forest’s available resources. As the 19th century progressed so did the measurement techniques. New relationships between diameter, height, and volume were discovered and exploited. These newfound relationships allowed for a more accurate assessment of wood types and yields of much larger forests. By 1891, these surveys were conducted through sample-based methods involving statistical averages and more sophisticated measuring devices were implemented. In the 20th century, the statistical method of sampling had become well established and commonly used. Further developments, such as unequal probability sampling, arose. As the 20th century progressed, an understanding of co efficients of error became clearer and the new technology of computers combined with the availability of aerial as well as satellite photography, further refined the process. Laser Scanning both terrestrially and aerially are now used alongside more manual methods. As a result sampling accuracy and assessment values became more accurate and allowed for modern practices to arise.
A forest inventory does not only record the trees height, DBH and number for tree yield calculations. But it also records the conditions of the forest. So this would include, geology, site conditions, tree health and other forest factors.
Merely looking at the forest for assessment is called taxation.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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