Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of fifty years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the ''de facto'' ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337 but his claim was denied due to the Salic law. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.〔Edward first styled himself "King of France" in 1337, though he did not officially assume the title until 1340; Prestwich (2005), pp. 307–8.〕 Following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England; victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny. Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians such as William Stubbs. This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements.〔Mortimer (2006), p. 1.〕〔Omrod (2012).〕
Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years.〔Mortimer (2006), p. 21.〕 The reign of his father, Edward II, was a particularly problematic period of English history.〔For an account of the political conflicts of Edward II's early years, see: 〕 One source of contention was the king's inactivity, and repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland.〔Tuck (1985), p. 52.〕 Another controversial issue was the king's exclusive patronage of a small group of royal favourites.〔Prestwich (1980), p. 80.〕 The birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward II's position in relation to the baronial opposition.〔Prestwich (2005), p. 189.〕 To bolster further the independent prestige of the young prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age.〔Mortimer (2006), p. 23.〕
In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from the French king, Charles IV, to perform homage for the English Duchy of Aquitaine.〔Tuck (1985), p. 88.〕 Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically, particularly over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger.〔For an account of Edward II's later years, see: 〕 Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place and sent him to France to perform the homage.〔Mortimer (2006), p. 39.〕 The young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, who was the sister of King Charles, and was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French.〔Prestwich (2005), p. 213.〕 While in France, however, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have the king Edward deposed.〔Prestwich (2005), p. 216.〕 To build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had Prince Edward engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault.〔Mortimer (2006), p. 46.〕 An invasion of England was launched and Edward II's forces deserted him completely. The king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327.〔Mortimer (2006), p. 54. The later fate of Edward II has been a source of much scholarly debate. For a summary of the evidence, see: Mortimer (2006), pp. 405–10〕
It was not long before the new reign also met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, who was now the ''de facto'' ruler of England. Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, and his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328.〔McKisack (1959), pp. 98–100.〕 Also the young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect. The tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330.〔Mortimer (2006), pp. 67, 81.〕 Eventually, Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III's personal reign began.〔Prestwich (2005), pp. 223–4.〕
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