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・ Etalocib
・ Etam
・ Etam (biblical figure)
・ Etam (biblical town)
・ Etam plc v Rowan
・ Etam, West Virginia
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ETA (separatist group)
・ Eta Andromedae
・ Eta Antliae
・ Eta Apodis
・ Eta Aquarii
・ Eta Aquariids
・ Eta Aquilae
・ Eta Arae
・ Eta Arietis
・ Eta Aurigae
・ Eta Boeriu
・ Eta Boötis
・ Eta Cancri
・ Eta Canis Majoris
・ Eta Canis Minoris

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ETA (separatist group) : ウィキペディア英語版
ETA (separatist group)

ETA (, ), an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ((:eus̺kaði ta as̺katas̺una); "Basque Country and Freedom")〔(What is Eta? ), BBC News 20 October 2011〕 is an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization in northern Spain and southwestern France. The group was founded in 1959 and has since evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group with the goal of gaining independence for the Greater Basque Country.〔 (Goiz Argi ). Goiz Argi. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕〔 (Goiz Argi ). Goiz Argi (27 January 2002). Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕 ETA is the main group within the Basque National Liberation Movement and is the most important participant in the Basque conflict.
Since 1968, ETA has been held responsible for killing 829 people, injuring thousands and undertaking dozens of kidnappings.〔(ETA has killed 829 people as of 19 January 2011 ), Spanish ''Ministerio del Interior''〕〔(Peace at Last? | People & Places|Smithsonian Magazine ). Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕 The group is proscribed as a terrorist group by Spain, the United Kingdom,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Proscribed terrorist groups )France,〔 (French list of terrorist organizations, in the annex of Chapter XIV )〕 the United States,〔(Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) ). Retrieved on 16 April 2013.〕 and the European Union.〔http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:028:0057:01:EN:HTML EU's list of terrorist organizations〕 This convention is followed by a plurality of domestic and international media, which also refer to the group as "terrorists".〔(Spain's rail ambitions: Ave Madrid ). The Economist (5 February 2009). Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕〔(Spanien: Mutmaßliche Eta-Terroristen gefasst – SPIEGEL ONLINE – Nachrichten – Politik ). Spiegel.de (2 July 2007). Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕 There are more than 400 imprisoned members of the group in Spain, France, and other countries.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.cronicaglobal.com/es/notices/2015/01/81-terroristas-de-eta-abandonan-la-carcel-en-2014-y-dejan-la-cifra-de-presos-etarras-en-465-14714.php )
ETA declared ceasefires in 1989, 1996, 1998 and 2006, and subsequently broke them. On 5 September 2010, ETA declared a new ceasefire that is still in force, and on 20 October 2011, ETA announced a "definitive cessation of its armed activity". On 24 November 2012, it was reported that the group was ready to negotiate a "definitive end" to its operations and disband completely.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20482620 )
ETA's motto is ("Keep up on both"), referring to the two figures in its symbol, a snake (representing politics) wrapped around an axe (representing armed struggle).〔(Quiosco | El Mundo en ORBYT ). Elmundo.es. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕〔(ETA, una serpiente vacilante ). elmundo.es. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕〔(De patrulla por Vitoria ). elmundo.es (24 March 2006). Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕

ETA has changed its internal structure on several occasions, commonly for security reasons. The group used to have a very hierarchical organization with a leading figure at the top, delegating into three substructures: the logistical, military and political sections. Reports from Spanish and French police point towards significant changes in ETA's structures in recent years. ETA has divided the three substructures into a total of eleven. The change was a response to recent captures, and possible infiltration, by the different law enforcement agencies. ETA's intention is to disperse its members and reduce the impact of detentions.
The leading committee is formed by 7 to 11 individuals, and ETA's internal documentation refers to it as Zuba, an abbreviation of ''Zuzendaritza Batzordea'' (directorial committee). There is another committee named ''Zuba-hitu'' that functions as an advisory committee. The eleven different substructures are: logistics, politics, international relations with fraternal organisations, military operations, reserves, prisoner support, expropriation, information, recruitment, negotiation, and treasury.〔(POLÍTICA – ETA ha modificado su estructura interna por motivos de seguridad ). El Correo Digital (1 December 1997). Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕
ETA's armed operations are organized in different ''taldes'' ("groups") or ''commandos'', generally composed of three to five members, whose objective is to conduct attacks in a specific geographic zone. The ''taldes'' are coordinated by the ''cúpula militar'' ("military cupola"). To supply the ''taldes'', support groups maintain safe houses and ''zulos'' (small rooms concealed in forests, garrets or underground, used to store arms, explosives or, sometimes, kidnapped people; the Basque word ''zulo'' literally means "hole"). The small cellars used to hide the people kidnapped are named by ETA and ETA's supporters "people's jails".〔''(«El técnico» construyó los zulos de ETA )'', La Razón, 18 October 2004.〕 Currently the most common ''commandos'' are itinerant, not linked to any specific area, and thus are more difficult to capture.〔Riding, Alan. (11 July 1992) (OLYMPICS – OLYMPICS – Keeping Terrorism at Bay in Barcelona – NYTimes.com ). New York Times. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.〕
Among its members, ETA distinguishes between ''legales/legalak'' ("legal ones"), those members who do not have police records and live apparently normal lives; ''liberados'' ("liberated") members known to the police that are on ETA's payroll and working full-time for ETA; and ''apoyos'' ("support") who just give occasional help and logistics support to the group when required.
There are also the imprisoned members of the group, serving time scattered across Spain and France, that sometimes still have significant influence inside the organisation; and finally the ''quemados'' ("burnt out"), members freed after having been imprisoned or those that are suspected by the group of being under police vigilance. In the past there was also the figure of the deportees, expelled by the French government to remote countries where they live freely. France has since stopped the practice of deporting ETA members to other places than to Spain to be judged. ETA's internal bulletin is named ''Zutabe'' ("Column"), replacing the earlier one (1962) ''Zutik'' ("Standing").
ETA also promotes the ''kale borroka'' ("street fight"), that is, violent acts against public transportation, political parties offices or cultural buildings, destruction of private property of politicians, police, military, journalist, council members, and anyone voicing criticism against ETA, bank offices, menaces, graffiti of political mottoes, and general rioting, usually using Molotov cocktails. These groups are made up mostly of young people, who are directed through youth organisations (such as Jarrai, Haika and Segi). Many of the present-day members of ETA started their collaboration with the group as participants in the ''kale borroka''.

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