|common_name = North Korea
|image_flag = Flag of North Korea.svg
|image_coat = Coat of Arms of North Korea.svg
|symbol_type = Emblem
|image_map = North Korea (orthographic projection).svg
|map_caption = Area controlled by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea shown in green
|capital = Pyongyang
|latd=39 |latm=2 |latNS=N |longd=125 |longm=45 |longEW=E
|largest_city = Pyongyang
|official_languages = Korean
|languages_type = Official script
|languages = Chosŏn'gŭl
|ethnic_groups = |ethnic_groups_year =
|government_type = Juche single-party state (various interpretations)
|leader_name1 = Kim Jong-un
|leader_name2 = Kim Yong-nam
|leader_title3 = Premier
|leader_name3 = Pak Pong-ju
|legislature = Supreme People's Assembly
|established_event1 = Liberation
|established_date1 = 15 August 1945
|established_event2 = Provisional People's Committee for North Korea established
|established_date2 = February 1946
|established_event3 = DPRK established
|established_date3 = 9 September 1948
|established_event4 = Chinese withdrawal
|established_date4 = October 1958
|area_rank = 98th
|area_magnitude = 1 E11
|area_km2 = 120,540
|area_sq_mi = 46,528
|percent_water = 4.87
|population_estimate = 24,895,000
|population_estimate_rank = 48th
|population_estimate_year = 2013
|population_census = 24,052,231
|population_census_year = 2011
|population_density_km2 = 198.3
|population_density_sq_mi = 513.8
|population_density_rank = 63rd
|GDP_PPP = $40 billion〔(North Korea ), CIA World Factbook, accessed on 31 March 2013.〕
|GDP_PPP_year = 2011
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $1,800〔
|GDP_nominal = $15,4 billion〔(National Accounts Main Aggregate Database ), United Nations Statistics Division, December 2012.〕
|GDP_nominal_year = 2013
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $621〔
|HDI_year = 2010 (latest)
|HDI_change = steady
|HDI = 0.540
|HDI_rank = 174th
|currency = North Korean won (₩)
|currency_code = KPW
|time_zone = Pyongyang Time
|utc_offset = +8:30
|time_zone_DST = |DST_note = |utc_offset_DST =
|date_format = }}}}
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +850
|cctld = .kp
|footnote_a = Kim Jong-un holds four concurrent positions: First Secretary of the Workers' Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, First Chairman of the National Defence Commission and Supreme Commander of the People's Army, serving as the "supreme leader" of the DPRK.
|footnote_b = Kim Yong-nam is the "head of state for foreign affairs". The position of president (formerly head of state) was written out of the constitution in 1998. Kim Il-sung, who died in 1994, was given the appellation "Eternal President" in its preamble.
North Korea (), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK; ), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. The name ''Korea'' is derived from the Kingdom of Goguryeo, also spelled as ''Koryŏ''. The capital and largest city is Pyongyang. North Korea shares a land border with China to the north and northwest, along the Amnok (Yalu) and Tumen rivers, and a small section of the Tumen River also forms a border with Russia to the northeast. The Korean Demilitarized Zone marks the boundary between North Korea and South Korea.
Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones by the United States and the Soviet Union, with the north occupied by the Soviets and the south by the Americans. Negotiations on reunification failed, and in 1948 two separate governments were formed: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War (1950–53). Although the Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire, no official peace treaty was ever signed. Both states were accepted into the United Nations in 1991.
The DPRK officially describes itself as a self-reliant socialist state and holds elections.〔Constitution of North Korea〕 Internationally, however, it is considered a totalitarian dictatorship. Various outlets have called it Stalinist, particularly noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family. International organizations have also assessed human rights violations in North Korea as belonging to a category of their own, with no parallel in the contemporary world.〔(【引用サイトリンク】work= Amnesty International UK )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】work= Human Rights Watch )〕 The Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family,〔 holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members.
Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world communist movement. ''Juche'', an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution as a "creative application of Marxism–Leninism" in 1972.〔Wikisource:Constitution of North Korea (1972)〕 The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education, housing and food production are subsidized or state-funded. In the late 1990s, North Korea suffered from a famine that resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians. North Korea continues to struggle with food production to this day.
North Korea follows ''Songun'', or "military-first" policy.〔H. Hodge (2003). ("North Korea’s Military Strategy" ), ''Parameters'', U.S. Army War College Quarterly.〕 It is the world's most militarized society, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the U.S., and India. It also possesses nuclear weapons.
== Etymology ==
The name ''Korea'' derives from Goryeo, itself referring to the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, the first Korean dynasty visited by Persian merchants who referred to Koryŏ (Goryeo; 고려) as Korea. The term ''Koryŏ'' also widely became used to refer to Goguryeo, which renamed itself ''Koryŏ'' in the 5th century.〔(Korea原名Corea？ 美國改的名. ) ''United Daily News'' website. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 〕 The modern spelling, "Korea", first appeared in late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.〔
Despite the coexistence of the spellings ''Corea'' and ''Korea'' in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on ''Korea'', making Japan appear first alphabetically.〔Demick, Barbara. ("Breaking the occupation spell: Some Koreans see putdown in letter change in name." ) ''Boston Globe''. September 18, 2003. Retrieved September 2, 2013.〕 Other commentators have pointed out that Japan continued to refer to Korea as "Corea" and "Chosen," even after Japan absorbed Korea, and that Japan had no need to concern itself with Korea's alphabetical position (since Japan had absorbed Korea) and, thus, Korea ceased to appear as an independent entity in international forums.
After Goryeo fell in 1392, ''Joseon'' became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon (Old Joseon). In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from ''Joseon'' to ''Daehan Jeguk'' (Korean Empire). The name ''Daehan'', which means "great Han" literally, derives from Samhan (Three Hans). However, the name ''Joseon'' was still widely used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the names ''Han'' and ''Joseon'' coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』