| Dark fantasy ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Dark fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy which can refer to literary, artistic, and cinematic works that incorporates darker and frightening themes of fantasy. It also often combines fantasy with elements of horror. The term can be used broadly to refer to fantastical works that have a dark, gloomy atmosphere or a sense of horror and dread.〔Stableford, Brian, "Dark Fantasy", in ''The A to Z of Fantasy Literature'',(p. 97) , Scarecrow Press,Plymouth. 2005. ISBN 0-8108-6829-6〕
A strict definition for dark fantasy is difficult to pin down. Gertrude Barrows Bennett has been called "the woman who invented dark fantasy".〔"The Woman Who Invented Dark Fantasy" by Gary C. Hoppenstand from ''Nightmare and Other Tales of Dark Fantasy'' by Francis Stevens, University of Nebraska Press, 2004, page x. ISBN 0-8032-9298-8.〕 Both Charles L. Grant〔''The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders'', Volume 1, edited by Gary Westfahl, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005.〕 and Karl Edward Wagner are credited with having coined the term "dark fantasy"—although both authors were describing different styles of fiction. Brian Stableford argues "dark fantasy" can be usefully defined as subgenre of stories that attempt to "incorporate elements of horror fiction" into the standard formulae of fantasy stories.〔 Stableford also suggests that supernatural horror set primarily in the real world is a form of "contemporary fantasy", whereas supernatural horror set partly or wholly in "secondary worlds" should be described as "dark fantasy".〔
Additionally, other authors, critics, and publishers have adopted dark fantasy to describe various other works. However, these stories rarely share universal similarities beyond supernatural occurrences and a dark, often brooding, tone. As a result, dark fantasy cannot be solidly connected to a defining set of tropes. The term itself may refer collectively to tales that are either horror-based or fantasy-based.
Some writers also use "dark fantasy" (or "Gothic fantasy") as an alternative description to "horror", because they feel the latter term is too lurid or vivid.〔Stableford, Brian, "Horror", in ''The A to Z of Fantasy Literature'',(p. 204), Scarecrow Press, Plymouth. 2005. ISBN 0-8108-6829-6〕
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