| languages_type = Official language
| languages = Czech
| languages2_type =
| languages2 =
| demonym = Czech
| ethnic_groups =
| ethnic_groups_year = 2014〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/czech-republic-population/ )〕
| religion =
| capital = Prague
| latd=50 |latm=05 |latNS=N |longd=14 |longm=28 |longEW=E
| largest_city = capital
| government_type =
| leader_title1 = President
| leader_name1 = Miloš Zeman
| leader_title2 = Prime Minister
| leader_name2 = Bohuslav Sobotka
| legislature = Parliament
| upper_house = Senate
| lower_house = Chamber of Deputies
| sovereignty_type = Formation
| established_event1 = Duchy of Bohemia
| established_date1 = c. 870
| established_event2 = Kingdom of Bohemia
| established_date2 = 1198
| established_event3 = Czechoslovakia
| established_date3 = 28 October 1918
| established_event4 =
| established_date4 = 1 January 1969
| established_event5 = Czech Republic
| established_date5 = 1 January 1993
|established_date6 = 1 May 2004
| EUseats = 24
| area_rank = 116th
| area_km2 = 78,866
| area_sq_mi = 30,450
| percent_water = 2
| population_estimate = 10,541,466
| population_estimate_year = September 2015
| population_estimate_rank = 81st
| population_census = 10,436,560〔(Census of Population and Housing 2011: Basic final results ). (Czech Statistical Office ). Retrieved on 19 December 2012.〕
| population_census_year = 2011
| population_density_km2 = 134
| population_density_sq_mi = 341
| population_density_rank = 87th
| GDP_PPP_year = 2015
| GDP_PPP = $325.285 billion〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Czech Republic )〕
| GDP_PPP_rank = 50th
| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $30,895〔
| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 39th
| GDP_nominal = $180.789 billion〔
| GDP_nominal_rank = 49th
| GDP_nominal_year = 2015
| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $17,171〔
| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 41st
| Gini_year = 2012
| Gini_change =
| Gini = 24.9
| Gini_ref = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_di12 )〕
| Gini_rank =
| HDI_year = 2013
| HDI_change = steady
| HDI = 0.861
| HDI_ref =
| HDI_rank = 28th
| currency = Czech koruna
| currency_code = CZK
| time_zone = CET
| utc_offset = +1
| time_zone_DST = CEST
| utc_offset_DST = +2
| drives_on = right
| calling_code = +420b
| cctld = .czc
| footnote_a = The question is rhetorical, implying "those places where my homeland lies".
| footnote_b = Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until 1997.
| footnote_c = Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.
| patron_saint = St Wenceslaus
The Czech Republic ( ;〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Oxford English Dictionary )〕 (チェコ語:Česká republika) ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the southeast and Poland to the northeast. The capital and largest city, Prague, has over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.
The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslids. In 1004, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1212, and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. The King of Bohemia ruled not only Bohemia itself, but also other lands, which together formed the so-called Crown of Bohemia, and he had a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite wars of the 15th century driven by the Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and organized mainly by the emperor and princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Protestant Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War, after which the monarchy consolidated its rule, reimposed Catholicism, and adopted a policy of gradual Germanization. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, which was formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.
Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by Soviet and American forces. Most of the German-speaking inhabitants were expelled after the war and thus the country lost its sizeable minority and its bilingual character. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a single-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and a multiparty parliamentary republic was formed. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The Czech Republic is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy〔(Country and Lending Groups. ) World Bank. Accessed on 3 July 2014.〕 and high living standards.〔http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2014/01/pdf/text.pdf〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Quality of Life Index by Country 2014 Mid Year )〕〔Social Progress Index〕 The UNDP ranks the country 15th in inequality-adjusted human development.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=2011 Human Development Report )〕 The Czech Republic also ranks as the 10th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE and the Council of Europe.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Multilateral Policy )〕
(詳細はBoii". The current name comes from the endonym ''Čech'', borrowed through Polish and spelled accordingly.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Oxford English Dictionary )〕〔
(Czech ). CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czechs, (チェコ語:Čechové)) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain. The etymology of the word ''Čech'' can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root ''
*čel-'', meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word ''člověk'' (a person).
The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia (''Čechy'') in the west, Moravia (Morava) in the southeast, and Czech Silesia (''Slezsko''; the smaller, south-eastern part of historical Silesia, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast. Known as the ''lands of the Bohemian Crown'' since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including ''Czech/Bohemian lands'', ''Bohemian Crown'', and the ''lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas''. When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of ''Czechoslovakia'' was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word name in English. In 1993, the Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Jozef Zieleniec suggested referring to the new country in less formal contexts as "Czechland", singling it out as a traditional name of the dominion of the Czechs. He also offered the alternative "Czechia" (''Česko'' (:ˈtʃɛsko) in Czech); while the Czech form has gained usage, the English version is still rare. The current Czech president Miloš Zeman uses the name ''Czechia'' in his official speeches and promotes its wider use. Nevertheless, in official documents and the full names of government institutions the term Czech Republic is always used.
(詳細はProtectorate of Bohemia and Moravia ''(protectorate of )'' 1939–1945
* 1993 – present
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』