| Croatian language ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Croatian ('' ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language〔David Dalby, ''Linguasphere'' (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".〕〔Benjamin W. Fortson IV, ''Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction'', 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."〕〔Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" (retrieved 20 Oct 2010 ), pp. 15–16.〕 used by Croats,〔E.C. Hawkesworth, "Serbian-Croatian-Bosnian Linguistic Complex", in the ''Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics'', 2nd edition, 2006.〕 principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighbouring countries.
Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. In the mid-18th century, the first attempts to provide a Croatian literary standard began on the basis of the Neo-Shtokavian dialect that served as a supraregional ''lingua franca'' pushing back regional Chakavian, Kajkavian, and Shtokavian vernaculars. The decisive role was played by Croatian Vukovians, who cemented the usage of Ijekavian Neo-Shtokavian as the literary standard in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, as well as designed a phonological orthography. Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet.
Ethnic Croats speak all other Serbo-Croatian dialects besides the Shtokavian dialect on which Standard Croatian is based (Chakavian, Kajkavian, and Torlakian (by the Krashovani)). These four dialects, and the four national standards, are usually subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers,〔(Radio Free Europe – Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? ) Živko Bjelanović: Similar, But Different, Feb 21, 2009, accessed Oct 8, 2010〕 and paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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