Cornell University ( ) is an American private Ivy League and federal land-grant research university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge — from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Cornell University Facts: Motto )〕
The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar.
Cornell is one of three private land grant universities in the nation and the only one in New York.〔The others are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Delaware.〕 Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York (SUNY) system, including its agricultural and veterinary colleges. As a land grant college, it operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions.〔 The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Plantations (more than 4,300 acres) are considered, as well as the numerous university-owned lands in New York City.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 title=Cornell University Facilities Services FAQ )〕
Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 29 Rhodes Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 44 Nobel laureates, and 14 living billionaires.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Cornell Nobel laureates )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Uncle Ezra )〕 The student body consists of nearly 14,000 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 122 countries.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Universities for Billionaire Alumni )〕
(詳細はNew York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state's land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and experienced educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Cornell University - Facts about Cornell - How old is Cornell? )〕
Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus as well as to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.〔(【引用サイトリンク】 title=Cornell University Cooperative Extension About Us )〕
Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees.〔The University's charter was amended on April 24, 1867 to specify alumni-elected trustees; () however, that provision was not implemented until there were at least 100 alumni ( ) in 1872. () Also in 1865, the election of the Harvard University Board of Overseers was shifted to alumni voting.〕
Cornell expanded, particularly since World War II, when numerous students were funded by the GI Bill. Its student population in Ithaca in the 21st century totals nearly 20,000 students. The faculty also expanded, and by 1999, the university had about 3,000 faculty members. The school has increased the number of courses. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=About Cornell University )〕
Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People's Republic of China.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Cornell president joins Indian prime minister to open new chapter in science education )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Hotel School, Singapore university establish joint master's program )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Rawlings heads to China to sign partnership agreement and deliver keynote address at economic summit in Beijing )〕 Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new 'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
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