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・ Columbia, South Carolina in the American Civil War
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・ Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean
・ Columbia, Tuscarawas County, Ohio
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・ Columbia-Shuswap D, British Columbia
・ Columbia-Shuswap Regional District
・ Columbia-Tusculum, Cincinnati
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean
| Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean ： ウィキペディア英語版|
"Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean" is a United States patriotic song which was popular during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries, especially during the Civil War era.〔Ace Collins, ''Songs Sung Red, White and Blue'', New York: Harper Collins, 2003, pp. 70-74.〕 It functioned as an unofficial national anthem in competition with "Hail, Columbia" and "The Star-Spangled Banner" until the latter's formal adoption as the national anthem of the United States in 1931. For many years the song's melody was used as the Voice of America's interval signal.
"Columbia" was a common poetic nickname for the United States of America in the 19th century. Graphically, in illustrations and cartoons, the United States was often represented by a heroic female figure named Columbia, dressed in flag-like bunting. Other nations used similar figures, notably the French Marianne, and the British Britannia.
Historical sources generally agree that in the autumn of 1843 an actor named David T. Shaw wanted a new patriotic song to sing at a benefit performance. He gained the assistance of a fellow performer, Thomas á Becket, Sr. (1808-1890), who wrote the lyrics and melody for him. Evidently, Shaw published the song under his own name, but Becket was able to prove his authorship by means of his original handwritten composition.〔Paul Holsinger, editor, ''War and American Popular Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia'', Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, p. 67〕 There remains some disagreement as to whether other versions of the song predated Becket's composition or followed it.
The British version of this anthem, "Britannia, the Pride of the Ocean," was first published in 1852, nine years after the American version was first published. There is no evidence it predated the American version.
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