Chyngyz Aitmatov ((キルギス語:Чыңгыз Айтматов) (:tʃɯŋˈʁɯs ɑjtˈmɑtəf); (ロシア語:Чинги́з Тореку́лович Айтма́тов)) (12 December 1928 – 10 June 2008) was a Soviet and Kyrgyz author who wrote in both Russian and Kyrgyz. He is the best known figure in Kyrgyzstan's literature.
== Life ==
He was born to a Kyrgyz father and Tatar mother. Aitmatov's parents were civil servants in Sheker. In 1937 his father was charged with "bourgeois nationalism" in Moscow, arrested and executed in 1938.〔
Aitmatov lived at a time when Kyrgyzstan was being transformed from one of the most remote lands of the Russian Empire to a republic of the USSR. The future author studied at a Soviet school in Sheker. He also worked from an early age. At fourteen he was an assistant to the Secretary at the Village Soviet. He later held jobs as a tax collector, a loader, an engineer's assistant and continued with many other types of work.
In 1946 he began studying at the Animal Husbandry Division of the Kirghiz Agricultural Institute in Frunze, but later switched to literary studies at the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute in Moscow, where he lived from 1956 to 1958. For the next eight years he worked for Pravda. His first two publications appeared in 1952 in Russian: "The Newspaper Boy Dziuio" and "Ашым." His first work published in Kyrgyz was "Ак Жаан" (White rain, 1954), and his well-known work "Jamila" (Jamila) appeared in 1958. In 1961 he was a member of the jury at the 2nd Moscow International Film Festival.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=2nd Moscow International Film Festival (1961) )〕 In 1971 he was a member of the jury at the 7th Moscow International Film Festival.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=7th Moscow International Film Festival (1971) )〕
1980 saw his first novel ''The Day Lasts More than a Hundred Years''; his next significant novel, ''The Scaffold'' was published in 1988. ''The Day Lasts More than a Hundred Years'' and other writings were translated into several languages. In 1994 he was a member of the jury at the 44th Berlin International Film Festival.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Berlinale: 1994 Juries )〕 In 2002 he was the President of the Jury at the 24th Moscow International Film Festival.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=24th Moscow International Film Festival (2002) )〕
Aitmatov suffered kidney failure, and on 16 May 2008 was admitted to a hospital in Nuremberg, Germany, where he died of pneumonia on 10 June 2008 at the age of 79.〔 After his death, Aitmatov was flown to Kyrgyzstan, where there were numerous ceremonies before he was buried in Ata Beyit cemetery, which he helped found and where his father most likely is buried, in Chong-Tash village, Alamüdün district, Chüy oblast, Kyrgyzstan.
His obituary in The New York Times characterized him as "a Communist writer whose novels and plays before the collapse of the Soviet Union gave a voice to the people of the remote Soviet republic of Kyrgyz" and adds that he "later became a diplomat and a friend and adviser to the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev."〔(Chingiz Aitmatov, Who Wrote of Life in U.S.S.R., Is Dead at 79 ) by Bruce Weber in The New York Times, 15 June 2008〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』