Chinese playing cards
| Chinese playing cards ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Playing cards (Chinese traditional: 紙牌; simplified: 纸牌; pinyin: ''zhǐpái'') were most likely invented in China during the Tang (618–907) or Song dynasty (960–1279). They were certainly in existence by the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271-1368).〔Lo, Andrew (2000), The Late Ming Game of Ma Diao, Journal of the International Playing Card Society (XXIX, No. 3), pp. 115–136, The International Playing-Card Society.〕〔Parlett, David. (The Chinese "Leaf Game" ). Retrieved 13 August 2015.〕 Chinese use the word ''pái'' (牌), meaning "plaque", to refer to both playing cards and tiles.〔Lo, Andrew (2004) 'China's Passion for Pai: Playing Cards, Dominoes, and Mahjong.' In: Mackenzie, C. and Finkel, I., (eds.), Asian Games: The Art of Contest. New York: Asia Society, pp. 227-229.〕 Many early sources are ambiguous if they don't specifically refer to paper ''pái'' (cards) or bone ''pái'' (tiles). In terms of game play, there is no difference; both serve to hide one face from the other players with identical backs. Card games are examples of imperfect information games as opposed to Chess or Backgammon.
Michael Dummett attributed to the Chinese the invention of gambling with cards, suits, and trick-taking games.〔Penco, Carlo (2013). (Dummett and the Game of Tarot ) at Academia.edu. Retrieved 14 August 2015.〕 Trick-taking games eventually became multi-trick games. These then evolved into the earliest type of rummy games during the early Qing dynasty (1644-1912). By the end of the monarchy, the vast majority of traditional Chinese card games were of the shedding or fishing variety. Chinese playing cards have proliferated into Southeast Asia by Chinese immigrants. The direction of deals and play is counter-clockwise.
Chinese dominoes first appeared around the Tang or Song dynasty and are derived from all twenty-one combinations of a pair of dice. It is unclear whether they appeared first as cards or as tiles. Though not visually apparent, they are divided into two suits: civil and military. The invention of the concept of suits increased the level of strategy in trick-taking games; the card of one suit cannot beat the card of another suit regardless of its rank.
Domino card decks come in different sizes. Smaller decks are used in trick-taking and banking games. 32-card decks, with the civil suit doubled, are used to play Tien Gow and Pai Gow. Larger decks, for rummy or fishing games, may have well over a hundred cards and can include wild cards.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
■ウィキペディアで「Chinese playing cards」の詳細全文を読む
| 翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース|
Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.