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Chinese cuisine : ウィキペディア英語版
Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine includes styles originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world including most oriental nations. The history of Chinese cuisine in China stretches back for thousands of years and has changed from period to period and in each region according to climate, imperial fashions, and local preferences. Over time, techniques and ingredients from the cuisines of other cultures were integrated into the cuisine of the Chinese people due both to imperial expansion and from the trade with nearby regions in pre-modern times, and from Europe and the New World in the modern period. In addition, dairy is rarely—if ever—used in any recipes in the style.
According to food critic Bonny Wolf, Chinese cuisine is one of the "Three Grand Cuisines" in the world, together with the French and Turkish cuisines.〔http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128907103〕
The "Eight Culinary Cuisines" of China〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/cuisine_drink/cuisine/eight_cuisines.htm )〕 are Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Szechuan, and Zhejiang cuisines.〔("Fujian Cuisine. ) (Beautyfujian.com ). Accessed June 2011.〕
Prominent styles of Chinese cuisine outside China include Singaporean, Malaysian, Indonesian, Indian and American, but there is Chinese cuisine wherever Chinese people are found.〔David Y. H. Wu and Sidney C. H. Cheung. ed., ''The Globalization of Chinese Food.'' (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, Anthropology of Asia Series, 2002). ISBN 0700714030.〕 The staple foods of Chinese cooking include rice, noodles, vegetables, and sauces and seasonings.
== History ==

(詳細はtraditional medical beliefs. Chinese culture initially centered around the North China Plain. The first domesticated crops seem to have been the foxtail and broomcorn varieties of millet, while rice was cultivated in the south. By 2000 BC, wheat had arrived from western Asia. However, these grains were typically served as warm noodle soups instead of baked into bread as in Europe. Nobles hunted various wild game and consumed mutton, pork, dog, and beef as these animals were domesticated. Grain was stored against famine and flood and meat was preserved with salt, vinegar, curing, and fermenting. The flavor of the meat was enhanced by cooking it in the fat of a different animal.
By the time of Confucius in the late Zhou, gastronomy was becoming a high art. He was recorded discussing one such picky eater: "For him, the rice could never be white enough. When it was not cooked right, he would not eat. When it was out of season, he would not eat. When the meat was not cut properly, he would not eat. When the food was not prepared with the right sauce, he would not eat." During Shi Huangdi's Qin dynasty, the empire expanded into the south. By the time of the Han Dynasty, the different climes and cuisines of China's peoples were linked by major canals and begun developing greater complexity. The philosophy behind it was rooted in the ''I Ching'' and Chinese traditional medicine: food was judged for color, aroma, taste, and texture and a good meal was expected to balance the Four Natures ('hot', warm, cool, and 'cold') and the Five Tastes (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter, and salty).
Salt was used as a preservative
from early times, but in cooking was added in the form of soy sauce, and not at the table. The predominance of chopsticks and spoons as eating utensils also necessitated that most food be prepared in bite-sized pieces or (as with fish) be so tender that it could be easily picked apart.
By the Later Han period (2nd century), writers frequently complained of lazy aristocrats who did nothing but sit around all day eating smoked meats and roasts.
During the Han dynasty, Chinese developed methods of food preservation for military rations during campaigns such as drying meat into jerky and cooking, roasting, and drying grain.
Chinese legends claim that the roasted flatbread Shaobing (shao-ping) was brought back from the Xiyu (the Western Regions, known as Central Asia) by the Han dynasty General Ban Chao, and that it was originally known as Hubing 胡餅 (barbarian pastry). The shao-ping is believed to be descended from the Hu-ping (Hubing). Shaobing is believed to be related to the Persian and Central Asian Nan bread and the near eastern pita bread. Foreign westerners made and sold sesame cakes in China during the Tang dynasty.
During the Southern and Northern Dynasties non-Han people like the Xianbei of Northern Wei introduced their cuisine to northern China, and these influences continued up to the Tang dynasty, popularizing meat like mutton and dairy products like goat milk, yogurts, and Kumis among even Han people. It was during the Song dynasty that Han Chinese developed an aversion to dairy products and abandoned the dairy foods introduced earlier.
The Han Chinese rebel Wang Su who received asylum in the Xianbei Northern Wei after fleeing from Southern Qi, at first could not stand eating dairy products like goat's milk and meat like mutton and had to consume tea and fish instead, but after a few years he was able to eat yogurt and lamb, and the Xianbei Emperor asked him which of the foods of China (Zhongguo) he preferred, fish vs mutton and tea vs yogurt.
The great migration of Chinese people south during the invasions preceding and during the Song dynasty increased the relative importance of southern Chinese staples such as rice and congee. The Yuan and Qing dynasties introduced Mongolian and Manchu cuisine, warm northern dishes which popularized hot pot cooking. During the Yuan dynasty many Muslim communities emerged in China, who practiced a porkless cuisine now preserved by Hui restaurants throughout the country. Yunnan cuisine is unique in China for its cheeses like Rubing and Rushan cheese made by the Bai people, and its yogurt, the yogurt may have been due to a combination of Mongolian influence during the Yuan dynasty, the Central Asian settlement in Yunnan, and the proximity and influence of India and Tibet on Yunnan.
As part of the last leg of the Columbian Exchange, Spanish and Portuguese traders began introducing foods from the New World to China through the port cities of Canton and Macao. Mexican chili peppers became essential ingredients in Sichuan cuisine and calorically-dense potatoes and corn became staple foods across the northern plains.
During the Qing Dynasty, Chinese gastronomes such as Yuan Mei focused upon a primary goal of extracting the maximum flavor of each ingredient. However, as noted in his culinary work the ''Suiyuan shidan'', the fashions of cuisine at the time were quite varied and in some cases were flamboyantly ostentatious,〔(【引用サイトリンク】website=Translating the Suiyuan Shidan )〕 especially when the disply served also a formal ceremonial purpose, as in the case of the Manchu Han Imperial Feast.〔(【引用サイトリンク】website=Translating the Suiyuan Shidan )
The People's Republic of China, amid numerous false starts, has largely industrialized food production. A side effect of this process was the introduction of American poultry-rearing techniques, which has greatly increased the relative consumption of eggs and chicken in various Chinese cuisines.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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