Chinese Taipei is the name for the Republic of China (ROC) agreed upon in the Nagoya Resolution whereby the ROC and the People's Republic of China recognize each other when it comes to the activities of the International Olympic Committee. It has been used by the ROC as the basis when participating in various international organizations and events, including the Olympics, Miss Earth, Paralympics, Asian Games, Asian Para Games, Universiade and FIFA World Cup.
The term is deliberately ambiguous. To the PRC "Chinese Taipei" is ambiguous about the political status or sovereignty of the ROC/Taiwan; to the ROC it is a more inclusive term than just "Taiwan" (which is to the ROC just one part of China, which it, similarly to the PRC, claims to be the rightful government of the nation in its entirety, and to the PRC the use of "Taiwan" as a national name is associated with independence of the area from the PRC) and "Taiwan China" might be construed as a subordinate area to the PRC.
== Origins ==
The increased official recognition of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in international activities, such as when accorded recognition in 1971 by the United Nations, instead of that accorded previously to the Republic of China (ROC), saw previously existing diplomatic relations transfer from Taipei to Beijing.〔Eyal Propper. ("How China Views its National Security," ) The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, May 2008.〕 The ROC needed to come to a beneficial conclusion to how it would be referred when there was in the same forum participation by the PRC.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC), had informally been using in international Olympic activities a number of names to differentiate the ROC from the PRC. "Taiwan" was used at the Tokyo Games.〔 In 1979, the PRC agreed to participate in IOC activities if the Republic of China was referred to as "Chinese Taipei". The Nagoya Resolution sanctioned that the Beijing Olympic Committee would be called the "Chinese Olympic Committee" and another name would need to be found for the ROC Olympic Committee (ROCOC).
The majority view of the ROC leadership at the time was that they did not want to change, "Taiwan" might imply without China or Chinese being in the name subordination to the PRC, did not represent all the regions/islands of the ROC and did not give the ROC an opportunity to assert when wanted a claim to territory outside of the ROC.〔
What people refer to as Taiwan is one of several areas or islands (Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu in addition to Taiwan) and Taiwan alone did not reflect the “territorial extent” of the ROCOC. Furthermore, although it is true that most products from Free area of the ROC are labeled “made in Taiwan,” the trade practices of the ROC are such that the regional area of production is used for labeling. Some wines from Kinmen are labeled “made in Kinmen,” just as some perfume is labeled “made in Paris” and not “made in France.” 〔
Taiwan's own government, the ROC government under the Kuomintang (KMT), rejected the designation of "Taiwan, China" on the grounds that this would imply subordination to the PRC.〔 However, it also refused the names "Taiwan" and "Formosa ()" as a means of reasserting both its claim as the only legitimate government of all of China, and its uncompromising rejection of Taiwan independence. Instead, deriving from the name of its capital city, the ROC government finally formulated the name “Chinese Taipei,” instead of accepting the offer of “Taiwan,” because “Chinese Taipei” signified an uncertain boundary that could exceed the ROC’s actual territory of control of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, whenever the ROC government wished to assert it. It regarded the term ''Chinese Taipei'' as both acceptably neutral and hopeful of assent from other interested parties. Its proposal found agreement. Beijing accepted the compromise position that the ROC Olympic Committee could be named the ''"Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee"''. 〔
In April 1979, in a plenary session of the IOC, He Zhenliang, a representative of the PRC, stated:
According to the Olympic Charter, only one Chinese Olympic Committee should be recognized. In consideration of the athletes in Taiwan having an opportunity to compete in the Olympic Games, the sports constitution in Taiwan could function as a local organization of China and still remain in the Olympic Movement in the name of the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee. However, its anthem, flag and constitutions should be changed correspondingly.〔Brian B. Pendleton, "The People's Republic of China and the Olympic Movement: A Question of Recognition," Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, The University of Alberta, 1978, p. 115.〕
In November 1979, in Nagoya, Japan, the International Olympic Committee, and later all other international sports federations, adopted a resolution under which the National Olympic Committee of the ROC would be recognized as the ''Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee'', and its athletes would compete under the name ''Chinese Taipei''. The National Olympic Committee of the ROC boycotted the Summer and Winter Games in protest of not being allowed to use the Republic of China's official flag and national anthem.
The name "Chinese Taipei" was formally accepted by the Government of the Republic of China in 1981.〔However, the name of the committee in Chinese continues to be "中華奧林匹克委員會" ("Chinese Olympic Committee"): see (Official Website ).〕 A flag bearing the emblem of its Olympic Committee against a white background as the ''Chinese Taipei Olympic flag'' was confirmed in January 1981.〔 The agreement was signed on March 23 in Lausanne by Shen Chia-ming, the President of Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee, and Juan Antonio Samaranch, the President of the IOC. In 1983, National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China was chosen as the anthem of the Chinese Taipei delegation. The Republic of China has competed under this flag and name exclusively at each Games since the 1984 Winter Olympics, as well as at the Paralympics and at other international events (with the Olympic rings replaced by a symbol appropriate to the event).
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』