Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials (including clay), which may take forms including art ware, tile, figurines, sculpture, and tableware. Ceramic art is one of the arts, particularly one of the visual arts, and of those, it is one of the plastic arts. While some ceramics are considered fine art, some are considered to be decorative, industrial or applied art objects. Ceramics may also be considered artifacts in archaeology. Ceramic art can be made by one person or by a group of people. In a pottery or ceramic factory, a group of people design, manufacture and decorate the art ware. Products from a pottery are sometimes referred to as "art pottery."〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.artpotterymanufacturers.com/Welcome.html )〕 In a one-person pottery studio, ceramists or potters produce studio pottery.
The word "ceramics" comes from the Greek ''keramikos'' (κεραμικος), meaning "pottery", which in turn comes from ''keramos'' (κεραμος) meaning "potter's clay."〔''The Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary''〕 Most traditional ceramic products were made from clay (or clay mixed with other materials), shaped and subjected to heat, and tableware and decorative ceramics are generally still made this way. In modern ceramic engineering usage, ceramics is the art and science of making objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials by the action of heat. It excludes glass and mosaic made from glass ''tesserae''.
There is a long history of ceramic art in almost all developed cultures, and often ceramic objects are all the artistic evidence left from vanished cultures, like that of the Nok in Africa over 2,000 years ago. Cultures especially noted for ceramics include the Chinese, Cretan, Greek, Persian, Mayan, Japanese, and Korean cultures, as well as the modern Western cultures.
Elements of ceramic art, upon which different degrees of emphasis have been placed at different times, are the shape of the object, its decoration by painting, carving and other methods, and the glazing found on most ceramics.
== Materials ==
Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, and bone china (fine china).
* Earthenware is pottery that has not been fired to vitrification and is thus permeable to water.〔("Earthenware" ) Britannica online〕 Many types of pottery have been made from it from the earliest times, and until the 18th century it was the most common type of pottery outside the far East. Earthenware is often made from clay, quartz and feldspar. Terracotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic,〔OED, "Terracotta"〕 where the fired body is porous.〔'Diagnosis Of Terra-Cotta Glaze Spalling.' S.E. Thomasen, C.L. Searls. ''Masonry: Materials, Design, Construction and Maintenance''. ASTM STP 992 Philadelphia, USA, 1988. American Society for Testing & Materials.〕〔'Colour Degradation In A Terra Cotta Glaze' H.J. Lee, W.M. Carty, J.Gill. ''Ceram.Eng.Sci.Proc.'' 21, No.2, 2000, p. 45–58.〕〔'High-lead glaze compositions and alterations: example of byzantine tiles.' A. Bouquillon. C. Pouthas. ''Euro Ceramics V. Pt.2. Trans Tech Publications'', Switzerland,1997, p. 1487–1490 Quote: "A collection of architectural Byzantine tiles in glazed terra cotta is stored and exhibited in the Art Object department of the Louvre Museum as well as in the Musee de la Ceramique de Sevres."〕〔'Industrial Ceramics.' F.Singer, S.S.Singer. Chapman & Hall. 1971. Quote: "The lighter pieces that are glazed may also be termed 'terracotta.'〕 Its uses include vessels (notably flower pots), water and waste water pipes, bricks, and surface embellishment in building construction. Terracotta has been a common medium for ceramic art (see below).
* Stoneware is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic made primarily from stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay.〔''Standard Terminology of Ceramic Whiteware and Related Products: ASTM Standard C242''.〕 Stoneware is fired at high temperatures.〔(Clay vitrifying temperatures )〕 Vitrified or not, it is nonporous; it may or may not be glazed.〔Encyclopedia Britannica (Jasperware is unglazed stoneware )〕 One widely-recognised definition is from the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities, a European industry standard states "Stoneware, which, though dense, impermeable and hard enough to resist scratching by a steel point, differs from porcelain because it is more opaque, and normally only partially vitrified. It may be vitreous or semi-vitreous. It is usually coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the clay used for its manufacture, and is normally glazed."
*Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between . The toughness, strength and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, toughness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock. Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant." However, the term ''porcelain'' lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in a very unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common" 〔Definition in ''The Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities'' defines, Burton, 1906〕
* Bone china (fine china) is a type of soft-paste porcelain that is composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin. It has been defined as ''ware with a translucent body'' containing a minimum of 30% of phosphate derived from animal bone and calculated calcium phosphate. Developed by English potter Josiah Spode, bone china is known for its high levels of whiteness and translucency,〔Ozgundogdu, Feyza Cakir. "Bone China from Turkey" Ceramics Technical; May2005, Issue 20, p 29–32.〕 and very high mechanical strength and chip resistance.〔 Its high strength allows it to be produced in thinner cross-sections than other types of porcelain.〔 Like stoneware it is vitrified, but is translucent due to differing mineral properties.〔What is China? (As with stoneware, the body becomes vitrified; which means the body fuses, becomes nonabsorbent, and very strong. Unlike stoneware, china becomes very white and translucent. )〕 From its initial development and up to the later part of the twentieth century, bone china was almost exclusively an English product, with production being effectively localised in Stoke-on-Trent.〔'Trading Places.' R.Ware. ''Asian Ceramics''. November,2009, p.35,37-39.〕 Most major English firms made or still make it, including Mintons, Coalport, Spode, Royal Crown Derby, Royal Doulton, Wedgwood and Worcester. In the UK, references to "china" or "porcelain" can refer to bone china, and "English porcelain" has been used as a term for it, both in the UK and around the world.〔Osborne, Harold (ed), ''The Oxford Companion to the Decorative Arts'', p. 130, 1975, OUP, ISBN 0-19-866113-4; Faulkner, Charles H., "The Ramseys at Swan Pond: The Archaeology and History of an East Tennessee Farm'', p.96, 2008, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2008, ISBN 1-57233-609-9, 9781572336094; Lawrence, Susan, "Archaeologies of the British: Explorations of Identity in the United Kingdom and Its Colonies 1600–1945", p. 196, 2013, Routledge, ISBN 1-136-80192-8, 781136801921〕 Fine china is not necessarily bone china, and is a term used to refer to ware which does not contain bone ash.
== Surface treatments ==
=== China painting ===
(詳細はporcelain objects such as plates, bowls, vases or statues. The body of the object may be hard-paste porcelain, developed in China in the 7th or 8th century, or soft-paste porcelain (often bone china), developed in 18th-century Europe. The broader term ceramic painting includes painted decoration on lead-glazed earthenware such as creamware or tin-glazed pottery such as maiolica or faience. Typically the body is first fired in a kiln to convert it into a hard porous bisque. Underglaze decoration may then be applied, followed by glaze, which is fired so it bonds to the body. The glazed porcelain may then be decorated with overglaze painting and fired again to bond the paint with the glaze. Decorations may be applied by brush or by stenciling, transfer printing, lithography and screen printing.〔Lewis, Florence (1883). China painting. Cassell.〕
=== Slipware ===
(詳細はpottery identified by its primary decorating process where slip is placed onto the leather-hard clay body surface before firing by dipping, painting or splashing. Slip is an aqueous suspension of a clay body, which is a mixture of clays and other minerals such as quartz, feldspar and mica. A coating of white or coloured slip, known as an engobe, can be applied to the article to improve its appearance, to give a smoother surface to a rough body, mask an inferior colour or for decorative effect. Slips or engobes can also be applied by painting techniques, in isolation or in several layers and colours. Sgraffito involves scratching through a layer of coloured slip to reveal a different colour or the base body underneath. Several layers of slip and/or sgraffito can be done while the pot is still in an unfired state. One colour of slip can be fired, before a second is applied, and prior to the scratching or incising decoration. This is particularly useful if the base body is not of the desired colour or texture.〔Eden, Victoria and Michael. (1999) ''Slipware, Contemporary Approaches.'' A & C Black, University of Pennsylvania Press, G & B Arts International. ISBN 90-5703-212-0〕
=== Terra sigillata ===
(詳細はburnishing of raw clay surfaces and used to promote carbon smoke effects, in both primitive low temperature firing techniques and unglazed alternative western-style Raku firing techniques. Terra sigillata is also used as a brushable decorative colourant medium in higher temperature glazed ceramic techniques.〔Garbsch, Jochen, Terra Sigillata. (1982) ''Ein Weltreich im Spiegel seines Luxusgeschirrs'', Munich. (in German)〕
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