The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher = ESA.int )〕 The sea has a surface area of (not including Garabogazköl Aylagy) and a volume of .〔(Lake Profile: Caspian Sea ). ''LakeNet''.〕 It is in an endorheic basin (it has no outflows) and located between Europe and Asia. It is bounded to the northeast by Kazakhstan, to the northwest by Russia, to the west by Azerbaijan, to the south by Iran, and to the southeast by Turkmenistan. The Caspian Sea lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. Its northern part, the Caspian Depression, is one of the lowest points on Earth.''
The ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea as an ocean, probably because of its saltiness and large size. It has a salinity of approximately 1.2% (12 g/l), about a third of the salinity of most seawater.
The word Caspian is derived from the name of the Caspi (Aramaic: Kspy, Greek: Kaspioi, (ペルシア語: کاسپی)), ancient people who lived to the south-west of the sea in Transcaucasia.〔(Caspian Sea ) in Encyclopædia Britannica.〕 Strabo wrote that "to the country of the Albanians belongs also the territory called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian tribe, as was also the sea; but the tribe has now disappeared".〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Strabo. Geography. 11.3.1 )〕 Moreover, the Caspian Gates, which is the name of a region in Tehran province of Iran, possibly indicates that they migrated to the south of the sea. The Iranian city Qazvin shares the root of its name with that of the sea. In fact, the traditional Arabic name for the sea itself is Bahr al-Qazwin (Sea of Qazvin).〔''Iran'' (5th ed., 2008), by Andrew Burke and Mark Elliott, (p. 28 ), Lonely Planet Publications, ISBN 978-1-74104-293-1〕
In classical antiquity among Greeks and Persians it was called the ''Hyrcanian Ocean''.〔(Hyrcania ). www.livius.org. Retrieved 2012-05-20.〕 In Persian antiquity, as well as in modern Iran, it is known as the ''Mazandaran Sea'' ((ペルシア語:دریای مازندران)). In Iran, it is also referred to as Daryā-i Xazar sometimes.〔(Drainage Basins – Caspian Sea ). Briancoad.com. Retrieved 2012-05-20.〕 In Turkic-speaking countries it is known as the ''Khazar Sea''. Old Russian sources call it the Khvalyn or Khvalis Sea (Хвалынское море / Хвалисское море) after the name of Khwarezmia.〔Max Vasmer, ''Etimologicheskii slovar' russkogo yazyka'', Vol. IV (Moscow: Progress, 1973), p. 229.〕 Ancient Arabic sources refer to it as ''Baḥr Gīlān'' (بحر گیلان) meaning "the Gilan Sea".
Turkic languages use a consistent nomenclature that is different from the Indo-European languages above. For instance, in Turkmen, the name is ''Hazar deňizi'', in Azeri, it is ''Xəzər dənizi'', and in modern Turkish, it is ''Hazar denizi''. In all these cases, the second word simply means "sea", and the first word refers to the historical Khazars who had a large empire based to the north of the Caspian Sea between the 7th and 10th centuries.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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