
The capstan equation or belt friction equation, also known as Eytelwein's formula,〔http://www.atp.ruhrunibochum.de/rt1/currentcourse/node57.html〕〔http://www.jrre.org/att_frict.pdf〕 relates the holdforce to the loadforce if a flexible line is wound around a cylinder (a bollard, a winch or a capstan). Because of the interaction of frictional forces and tension, the tension on a line wrapped around a capstan may be different on either side of the capstan. A small ''holding'' force exerted on one side can carry a much larger ''loading'' force on the other side; this is the principle by which a capstantype device operates. A holding capstan is a ratchet device that can turn only in one direction; once a load is pulled into place in that direction, it can be held with a much smaller force. A powered capstan, also called a winch, rotates so that the applied tension is multiplied by the friction between rope and capstan. On a tall ship a holding capstan and a powered capstan are used in tandem so that a small force can be used to raise a heavy sail and then the rope can be easily removed from the powered capstan and tied off. In rock climbing with socalled toproping, a lighter person can hold (belay) a heavier person due to this effect. The formula is :$T\_\backslash text\; =\; T\_\backslash text\backslash \; e^\; ~,$ where $T\_\backslash text$ is the applied tension on the line, $T\_\backslash text$ is the resulting force exerted at the other side of the capstan, $\backslash mu$ is the coefficient of friction between the rope and capstan materials, and $\backslash phi$ is the total angle swept by all turns of the rope, measured in radians (i.e., with one full turn the angle $\backslash phi\; =2\backslash pi\backslash ,$). Several assumptions must be true for the formula to be valid: # The rope is on the verge of full sliding, i.e. $T\_\backslash text$ is the maximum load that one can hold. Smaller loads can be held as well, resulting in a smaller ''effective'' contact angle $\backslash phi$. # It is important that the line is not rigid, in which case significant force would be lost in the bending of the line tightly around the cylinder. (The equation must be modified for this case.) For instance a Bowden cable is to some extent rigid and doesn't obey the principles of the Capstan equation. # The line is nonelastic. It can be observed that the force gain grows exponentially with the coefficient of friction, the number of turns around the cylinder, and the angle of contact. Note that ''the radius of the cylinder has no influence on the force gain''. The table below lists values of the factor $e^\; \backslash ,$ based on the number of turns and coefficient of friction ''μ''. From the table it is evident why one seldom sees a sheet (a rope to the loose side of a sail) wound more than three turns around a winch. The force gain would be extreme besides being counterproductive since there is risk of a riding turn, result being that the sheet will foul, form a knot and not run out when eased (by slacking grip on the tail (free end), or in land talk, one lets go of the hold end. It is both ancient and modern practice for anchor capstans and jib winches to be slightly flared out at the base, rather than cylindrical, to prevent the rope (anchor warp or sail sheet) from sliding down. The rope wound several times around the winch can slip upwards gradually, with little risk of a riding turn, provided it is tailed (loose end is pulled clear), by hand or a selftailer. For instance, the factor 153552935 means, in theory, that a newborn baby would be capable of holding the weight of two supercarriers (97 000 ton each, but for the baby it would be only a little more than 1 kg). == Proof of the capstan equation == The first step is to relate the radial or normal force $F$(Newtons/radian) at any point of the rope wrapped around a capstan to the tension $T$(Newtons) in the rope as shown in the figure. The y axis component of the upward force of the capstan on the rope, $F\; \backslash varphi$, must equal the Y axis downward component of the tension in the rope, $T\_\backslash text\; \backslash sin(\backslash varphi)$. $F\; \backslash varphi\; =\; T\_\backslash text\; \backslash sin\; (\backslash varphi)$ In the limit as $\backslash varphi$ goes to zero (the smallangle approximation), $\backslash sin(\backslash varphi)=\; \backslash varphi$ and $T\_\backslash text\; =\; T\_\backslash text\; =\; T$ so $\backslash varphi$ cancels leaving $F=T$ So the frictional force over a wrap angle $d\backslash varphi$ is :$\backslash mu\; d\backslash varphi\; =\; \backslash mu\; d\backslash varphi$ where $\backslash mu$ is the coefficient of friction (nonslip). The increase in rope tension $dT$ over a wrap angle $d\backslash varphi$ is the frictional force over that angle so :$dT=\backslash mu\; d\backslash varphi$ :$\backslash fracdT=\backslash mu\; d\backslash varphi$ Integration of both sides yields : $\backslash int\_\}\; \backslash frac\; \backslash ;\; =\; \backslash int\_0^\backslash phi\; \backslash mu\; \backslash ;\; \backslash varphi$ : $\backslash ln\; T\_\backslash text\; \; \backslash ln\; T\_\backslash text\; =\; \backslash ln\backslash frac\}\; =\; \backslash mu\; \backslash phi$ and exponentiating both sides, : $\backslash frac\}=^$ Finally, : $T\_\backslash text\; =\; T\_\backslash text^$ 抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』 ■ウィキペディアで「Capstan equation」の詳細全文を読む スポンサード リンク
