The Caprock Escarpment is a term used in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico to describe the geographical transition point between the level high plains of the Llano Estacado and the surrounding rolling terrain. In Texas, the escarpment stretches around south-southwest from the northeast corner of the Texas Panhandle near the Oklahoma border. The escarpment is especially notable, from north to south, in Briscoe, Floyd, Motley, Crosby, Dickens, Garza, and Borden counties. In New Mexico, there is a prominent escarpment along the northernmost extension of the Llano Estacado, especially to the south of San Jon and Tucumcari, both in Quay County, New Mexico. Along the western edge of the Llano Estacado, the portion of the escarpment that stretches from Caprock to Maljamar, New Mexico is called the Mescalero Escarpment or Mescalero Ridge.〔Price, A.P. 1977. Mescalero Sandhills of Cochran and Yoakum Counties, Texas. Master's thesis, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, 253 pp.〕〔Henderson, D. 2006. An Introduction to the Mescalero Sands Ecosystem. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University, 42 pp.〕
The escarpment is made of Caliche — a layer of calcium carbonate that resists erosion.〔 In some places, the escarpment rises around above the plains to the east. The escarpment's features formed by erosion from rivers and streams, creating arroyos and highly diverse terrain, including the large Palo Duro Canyon southeast of Amarillo, Texas.〔 One will notice the change in elevation of several hundred feet while crossing the Caprock Escarpment on Interstate 40 between Adrian, Texas and San Jon, New Mexico.
File:Northwest Escarpment Llano Estacado 2003.jpg|Northwest escarpment of the Llano Estacado overlooking Alamogordo Valley of Quay and Guadalupe Counties, New Mexico.
File:Llano Estacado Caprock Escarpment south of Ralls TX 2009.jpg|The Caprock Escarpment along Texas State Highway 207 between Post and Ralls, Texas.
File:Llano Escarpment.jpg|Escarpment that defines the northern edge of Llano Estacado, south of San Jon, New Mexico.
The overall slight upslope and, in some areas, convergent, terrain of the Caprock is implicated in altering local weather and climate, such as enhancing precipitation and promoting thunderstorm initiation and organization.
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