Words near each other
・ Brusqeulia uncicera
・ Brusque
・ Brusque Futebol Clube
・ Brusque, Aveyron
・ Brusque, Santa Catarina
・ Brusquembille
・ Bruss
・ Brusse
・ Brusse v Jahani BV
・ Brussel Formation
・ Brusselator
・ Brusseline
・ Brusselization
・ BRussells Tribunal
・ Brusselpoort
・ Brussels (Armstrong Field) Airport
・ Brussels (community), Wisconsin
・ Brussels (disambiguation)
・ Brussels Affair (Live 1973)
・ Brussels Agreement
・ Brussels Agreement (1924)
・ Brussels Agreement (2013)
・ Brussels Agreement, 1984
・ Brussels Airlines
・ Brussels Airlines destinations
・ Brussels Airport
・ Brussels Airport diamond heist
・ Brussels American School
・ Brussels and the European Union

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Brussels : ウィキペディア英語版

| official_name =
| nickname = Capital of Europe〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.city-data.com/world-cities/Brussels-Introduction.html )〕 Comic city〔〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.easyjet.com/en/cheap-flights/brussels )
| image_skyline = TE-Collage Brussels.png
| imagesize = 250px
| image_caption = A collage with several views of Brussels, Top: View of the Northern Quarter business district, 2nd left: Floral carpet event in the Grand Place, 2nd right: Brussels City Hall and Mont des Arts area, 3rd: Cinquantenaire Park, 4th left: Manneken Pis, 4th middle: St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral, 4th right: Congress Column, Bottom: Royal Palace of Brussels
| image_flag = Flag of the Brussels-Capital Region.svg
| flag_size = 125px
| flag_link = Flag of the Brussels-Capital Region
| image_blank_emblem = Greater Coat of Arms of Brussels.svg
| blank_emblem_type = Coat of Arms
| image_map = Brussels in Belgium and the European Union.svg
| mapsize = 250px
| map_caption =
| coordinates_region = BE
| subdivision_type = Country
| subdivision_name = Belgium
| seat_type =
| seat =
| established_title = Settled
| established_date = 580
| established_title1 = Founded
| established_date1 = 979
| established_title2 = Region
| established_date2 = 18 June 1989
| parts_type = Municipalities
| parts_style = coll
| p1 = Anderlecht
| p2 = Auderghem / Oudergem
| p3 = Berchem-Sainte-Agathe / Sint-Agatha-Berchem
| p4 = City of Brussels
| p5 = Etterbeek
| p6 = Evere
| p7 = Forest / Vorst
| p8 = Ganshoren
| p9 = Ixelles / Elsene
| p10 = Jette
| p11 = Koekelberg
| p12 = Molenbeek-Saint-Jean / Sint-Jans-Molenbeek
| p13 = Saint-Gilles / Sint-Gillis
| p14 = Saint-Josse-ten-Noode / Sint-Joost-ten-Node
| p15 = Schaerbeek / Schaarbeek
| p16 = Uccle / Ukkel
| p17 = Watermael-Boitsfort / Watermaal-Bosvoorde
| p18 = Woluwe-Saint-Lambert / Sint-Lambrechts-Woluwe
| p19 = Woluwe-Saint-Pierre / Sint-Pieters-Woluwe
| leader_title = Executive
| leader_name = Government of the Brussels-Capital Region
| leader_title1 = Governing parties (2014–2019)
| leader_name1 = PS, FDF, cdH; Open Vld, sp.a, CD&V
| leader_title2 = Minister-President
| leader_name2 = Rudi Vervoort (PS)
| leader_title3 = Legislature
| leader_name3 = Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region
| leader_title4 = Speaker
| leader_name4 = Charles Picqué (PS)
| leader_title5 = Governor
| leader_name5 = Jean Clément (acting)
| area_magnitude =
| area_total_km2 = 161.38
| area_total_sq_mi = 62.2
| total_type = Region/City
| population_footnotes =
| population_total =
| population_as_of =
| population_density_km2 = 7,025
| population_density_sq_mi = 16,857
| population_metro = 1,830,000
| population_urban =
| population_blank1_title =
| population_blank1 =
| timezone = CET
| utc_offset = +1
| timezone_DST = CEST
| utc_offset_DST = +2
| latd=50 |latm=51 |latNS=N
| longd=4 |longm=21 |longEW=E
| coordinates_display=inline,title
| elevation_m = 13
| elevation_ft = 43
| elevation_footnotes =
| postal_code_type = ISO 3166
| postal_code = BE-BRU
| website = (be.brussels )
| footnotes =
Brussels ((フランス語:Bruxelles), ; (オランダ語:Brussel), ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region〔 (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.)〕 (, (オランダ語:Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest)),〔. ''Gewest'' in isolation is pronounced (:ɣəˈʋɛst).〕 is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the city of Brussels which is the capital of Belgium, the French Community of Belgium, and the Flemish Community. The region has a population of 1.2 million and a metropolitan area with a population of over 1.8 million, the largest in Belgium.〔 Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 18 October 2008.〕〔 Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Brussels is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (''geoperationaliseerde agglomeratie'') with 1,451,047 inhabitants (2008-01-01, adjusted to municipal borders). Adding the closest surroundings (suburbs, ''banlieue'' or ''buitenwijken'') gives a total of 1,831,496. And, including the outer commuter zone (''forensenwoonzone'') the population is 2,676,701. Retrieved on 18 October 2008.〕
Since the end of the Second World War, Brussels has been a major centre for international politics and has become the polyglot home of numerous international organisations, politicians, diplomats and civil servants. Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions.〔〔It should be noted that Brussels is not formally declared capital of the EU, though its position is spelled out in the Treaty of Amsterdam. See the section dedicated to this issue.〕 The secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) are also located in Brussels.
Brussels is just a few kilometres north of the boundary between Belgium's language communities—French in the south, Dutch in the north. Historically a Dutch-speaking city, it has seen a major shift to French since Belgian independence in 1830. Today, although the majority language is French, the city is officially bilingual. All road signs, street names, and many advertisements and services are shown in both languages. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual with increasing numbers of migrants, expatriates and minority groups speaking their own languages.

The most common theory of the origin of Brussels' name is that it derives from the Old Dutch ''Broekzele'' or ''Broeksel'', meaning marsh (''broek'') and home (''zele'' / ''sel'') or "home in the marsh".〔Geert van Istendael ''Arm Brussel'', uitgeverij Atlas, ISBN 90-450-0853-X〕 The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580. Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai made the first recorded reference to the place "Brosella" in 695 when it was still a hamlet. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island.
Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven gained the County of Brussels around 1000 by marrying Charles' daughter. Because of its location on the shores of the Senne on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, and Cologne, Brussels grew quite quickly; it became a commercial centre that rapidly extended towards the upper town (St. Michael and Gudula Cathedral, Coudenberg, Sablon area), where there was a smaller risk of floods. As it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant at about this time (1183/1184). In the 13th century, the city got its first walls.〔 (Zo ontstond Brussel ) Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie – Commission of the Flemish Community in Brussels〕
After the construction of the city walls in the early 13th century, Brussels grew significantly. To let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Today, traces of it can still be seen, mostly because the "small ring", a series of roadways in downtown Brussels bounding the historic city centre, follows its former course.
In the 15th century, by means of the wedding of heiress Margaret III of Flanders with Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, a new Duke of Brabant emerged from the House of Valois (namely Antoine, their son), with another line of descent from the Habsburgs (Maximilian of Austria, later Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, married Mary of Burgundy, who was born in Brussels). Brabant had lost its independence, but Brussels became the Princely Capital of the prosperous Low Countries, and flourished.
In 1516 Charles V, who had been heir of the Low Countries since 1506, was declared King of Spain in St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral in Brussels. Upon the death of his grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Charles became the new ruler of the Habsburg Empire and was subsequently elected the Holy Roman Emperor. It was in the Palace complex at Coudenberg that Charles V abdicated in 1555. This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had greatly expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant, but it was destroyed by fire in 1731.
In 1695, King Louis XIV of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery. Together with the resulting fire, it was the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels. The Grand Place was destroyed, along with 4000 buildings, a third of those in the city. The reconstruction of the city centre, effected during subsequent years, profoundly changed the appearance of the city and left numerous traces still visible today. The city was captured by France in 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession but was handed back to Austria three years later.
Brussels remained with Austria until 1795, when the Southern Netherlands was captured and annexed by France. Brussels became the capital of the department of the Dyle. It remained a part of France until 1815, when it joined the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The former Dyle department became the province of South Brabant, with Brussels as its capital.
In 1830, the Belgian revolution took place in Brussels after a performance of Auber's opera ''La Muette de Portici'' at the La Monnaie theatre. Brussels became the capital and seat of government of the new nation. South Brabant was renamed simply Brabant, with Brussels as its capital. On 21 July 1831, Leopold I, the first King of the Belgians, ascended the throne, undertaking the destruction of the city walls and the construction of many buildings. Following independence, the city underwent many more changes. The Senne had become a serious health hazard, and from 1867 to 1871 its entire course through the urban area was completely covered over. This allowed urban renewal and the construction of modern buildings and boulevards characteristic of downtown Brussels today.
Throughout this time, Brussels remained mostly a Dutch-speaking city, though until 1921 French was the sole language of administration. During the 20th century the city has hosted various fairs and conferences, including the Solvay Conference on Physics and on Chemistry, and two world fairs: the Brussels International Exposition of 1935 and the Expo '58. During World War I, Brussels was an occupied city, but German troops did not cause much damage. In World War II the city was again occupied, and was spared major damage during its occupation by German forces before it was liberated by the British Guards Armoured Division. The Brussels Airport dates to the occupation.
After the war, Brussels was modernized for better and for worse. The construction of the North–South connection linking the main railway stations in the city was completed in 1952, while the first Brussels premetro was finished in 1969, and the first line of the Brussels Metro was opened in 1976. Starting from the early 1960s, Brussels became the ''de facto'' capital of what would become the European Union, and many modern buildings were built. Unfortunately, development was allowed to proceed with little regard to the aesthetics of newer buildings, and many architectural gems were demolished to make way for newer buildings that often clashed with their surroundings, a process known as ''Brusselization''.
The Brussels-Capital Region was formed on 18 June 1989 after a constitutional reform in 1988. It has bilingual status and it is one of the three federal regions of Belgium, along with Flanders and Wallonia.〔〔
Brussels was in the global spotlight in November 2015, when a series of raids from police searching for Paris bombing suspect Salah Abdeslam forced the city into virtual lockdown.〔(NBC News )〕

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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