|allegiance= Elizabeth II
25,010 Army Reserve
30,030 Regular Reserve
|patron= Elizabeth II
|commander1=General Sir Nick Carter
|commander1_label=Chief of the General Staff
|commander2=W01 Glenn Haughton
|commander2_label=Army Sergeant Major
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The force was initially administered by the War Office from London, which in 1964 was subsumed into the Ministry of Defence. The professional head of the British Army is the Chief of the General Staff.
The full-time element of the British Army is referred to as the ''Regular Army'' and has been since the creation of the reservist ''Territorial Force'' in 1908. All members of the British Army swear (or affirm) allegiance to the monarch as commander-in-chief. However, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires Parliamentary consent for The Crown to maintain a standing army in peacetime. Parliament approves the continued existence of the Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years. In contrast to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force, the British Army does not include ''Royal'' in its title because it is not technically a unified organisation, but a collection of regiments and corps, many of which have been granted the "Royal" prefix and have members of the Royal Family occupying senior honorary positions within some regiments.
Throughout its history, the British Army has seen action in a number of major wars involving the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the First World War and Second World War. Repeatedly emerging victorious from these decisive wars allowed Britain to influence world events with its policies and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold war, the British Army has been deployed to many conflict zones, often as part of an expeditionary force or a United Nations peacekeeping operation. Additionally, the British Army maintains several permanent overseas postings.
== History ==
(詳細はWar of Spanish Succession. Consequently, although the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the same operational command, and so not only were the regiments of the old armies transferred ''in situ'' to the new army so too was the institutional ethos, customs, and traditions, of the old standing armies that had been created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 66 years earlier. The order of seniority of the most senior line regiments in the British Army is based on the order of seniority in the English army. Scottish and Irish regiments were only allowed to take a rank in the English army from the date of their arrival in England or the date when they were first placed on the English establishment. For example, in 1694 a board of general officers was convened to decide the rank of English, Irish and Scots regiments serving in the Netherlands; the regiment that became known as the Scots Greys were designated as the 4th Dragoons because there were three English regiments raised prior to 1688 when the Scots Greys were first placed on the English establishment. In 1713, when a new board of general officers was convened to decide upon the rank of several regiments, the seniority of the Scots Greys was reassessed and based on their entry into England in June 1685. At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, and so after some delay the Scots Greys obtained the rank of 2nd Dragoons in the British Army.
Following William and Mary's accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Mary's father, James II. Following the union of England and Scotland in 1707, and the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, British foreign policy on the continent was to contain expansion by its competitor powers such as France and Spain. Spain, in the previous two centuries, had been the dominant global power, and the chief threat to England's early transatlantic ambitions, but was now waning. The territorial ambitions of the French, however, led to the War of the Spanish Succession〔.〕 and the Napoleonic Wars.〔 Russian activity led to the Crimean War.〔 After 1745, recruits were increasingly drawn from Scotland; by the mid-1760s between one fifth and one third of officers were from Scotland.〔''The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Army'' (1994) p. 103 〕
From the time of the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763, Great Britain, and its successor, the United Kingdom, was one of the leading military and economic powers of the world.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』