The Bombay duck or bummalo, ''Harpadon nehereus'', (Bengali: ''bamaloh or loytta'', Marathi: ''bombil'', Sinhala: ''bombeli'', Urdu: ''بمبل مچھلی'') is, despite its name, not a duck but a lizardfish. It is native to the waters in Maharashtra, and a small number are also found in the Bay of Bengal.They are also caught in the South China Sea. The fish is often dried and salted before it is consumed, as its meat does not have a distinctive taste of its own. After drying, the odour of the fish is extremely powerful, and it is usually transported in air-tight containers. Fresh fish are usually fried and served as a starter. In Mumbai, Konkan, and the western coastal areas in India, this dish is popularly known as "Bombil fry".
The origin of the term "Bombay duck" is uncertain. One popular etymology relates to railways. The shoals of fish around the Eurasian continent were separated when the Indian plate moved into it, dividing the species along the coasts of eastern and western India. When the rail links started on the Indian subcontinent, people from eastern Bengal were made aware of the great availability of the locally prized fish on India's western coasts and began importing them by the railways. Since the smell of the dried fish was overpowering, its transportation was later consigned to the mail train; the Bombay Mail (or Bombay Daak) thus reeked of the fish smell and "You smell like the Bombay Daak" was a common term in use in the days of the British Raj. In Bombay, the local English speakers then called it so, but it was eventually corrupted into "Bombay duck". Nonetheless, the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' dates "Bombay duck" to at least 1850, two years before the first railroad in Bombay was constructed, making this explanation unlikely.〔(duck, n.1 ). ''Oxford English Dictionary'', 2nd ed., 1989; online version December 2011. Accessed 2 February 2012.〕〔(IR History: Early Days - I ). Indian Railways Fan Club website. Accessed 2 February 2012.〕
According to local Bangladeshi stories, the term Bombay duck was first coined by Robert Clive, after he tasted a piece during his conquest of Bengal. It is said that he associated the pungent smell with that of the newspapers and mail which would come into the cantonments from Bombay. The term was later popularized among the British public by its appearance in Indian restaurants in the UK.
In his 1829 book of poems and "Indian reminiscences", Sir Toby Rendrag (pseudonym) notes the "use of a fish nick-named 'Bombay Duck'"〔Toby Rendrag (sir, pseud.), ''Poems, original, lyrical, and satirical, containing Indian reminiscences of the late sir Toby Rendrag'', Publ. 1829 W. Boyls (page 26 )〕 and the phrase is used in texts as early as 1815.〔A. Clark, William Combe, ''Paddy Hew: a poem : from the brain of Timothy Tarpaulin'', Printed for Whittingham and Arliss, 1815, 195 pages, (page 86 )〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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